Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Direction: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled My Views on University Ranking. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.
My Views on University Ranking
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Into the Unknown
The world has never seen population ageing before. Can it cope?
Until the early 1990s nobody much thought about whole populations getting older. The UN had the foresight to convene a “world assembly on ageing” back in 1982, but that came and went. By 1994 the World Bank had noticed that something big was happening. In a report entitled “Averting the Old Age Crisis”, it argued that pension arrangements in most countries were unsustainable.
For the next ten years a succession of books, mainly by Americans, sounded the alarm. They had titles like Young vs Old, Gray Dawn and The Coming Generational Storm, and their message was blunt: health-care systems were heading for the rocks, pensioners were taking young people to the cleaners, and soon there would be intergenerational warfare.
Since then the debate has become less emotional, not least because a lot more is known about the subject. Books, conferences and research papers have multiplied. International organisations such as the OECD and the EU issue regular reports. Population ageing is on every agenda, from G8 economic conferences to NATO summits. The World Economic Forum plans to consider the future of pensions and health care at its prestigious Davos conference early next year. The media, including this newspaper, are giving the subject extensive coverage.
Whether all that attention has translated into sufficient action is another question. Governments in rich countries now accept that their pension and health-care promises will soon become unaffordable, and many of them have embarked on reforms, but so far only timidly. That is not surprising: politicians with an eye on the next election will hardly rush to introduce unpopular measures that may not bear fruit for years, perhaps decades.
The outline of the changes needed is clear. To avoid fiscal (财政) meltdown, public pensions and health-care provision will have to be reined back severely and taxes may have to go up. By far the most effective method to restrain pension spending is to give people the opportunity to work longer, because it increases tax revenues and reduces spending on pensions at the same time. It may even keep them alive longer. John Rother, the AARP’s head of policy and strategy, points to studies showing that other things being equal, people who remain at work have lower death rates than their retired peers.
Younger people today mostly accept that they will have to work for longer and that their pensions will be less generous. Employers still need to be persuaded that older workers are worth holding on to. That may be because they have had plenty of younger ones to choose from, partly thanks to the post-war baby-boom and partly because over the past few decades many more women have entered the labour force, increasing employers’ choice. But the reservoir of women able and willing to take up paid work is running low, and the baby-boomers are going grey.
In many countries immigrants have been filling such gaps in the labour force as have already emerged (and remember that the real shortage is still around ten years off). Immigration in the developed world is the highest it has ever been, and it is making a useful difference. In still-fertile America it currently accounts for about 40% of total population growth, and in fast-ageing western Europe for about 90%.
On the face of it, it seems the perfect solution. Many developing countries have lots of young people in need of jobs; many rich countries need helping hands that will boost tax revenues and keep up economic growth. But over the next few decades labour forces in rich countries are set to shrink so much that inflows of immigrants would have to increase enormously to compensate: to at least twice their current size in western Europe’s most youthful countries, and three times in the older ones. Japan would need a large multiple of the few immigrants it has at present. Public opinion polls show that people in most rich countries already think that immigration is too high. Further big increases would be politically unfeasible.
To tackle the problem of ageing populations at its root, “old” countries would have to rejuvenate (使年轻) themselves by having more of their own children. A number of them have tried, some more successfully than others. But it is not a simple matter of offering financial incentives or providing more child care. Modern urban life in rich countries is not well adapted to large families. Women find it hard to combine family and career. They often compromise by having just one child.
And if fertility in ageing countries does not pick up? It will not be the end of the world, at least not for quite a while yet, but the world will slowly become a different place. Older societies may be less innovative and more strongly disinclined to take risks than younger ones. By 2025 at the latest, about half the voters in America and most of those in western European countries will be over 50—and older people turn out to vote in much greater number than younger ones. Academic studies have found no evidence so far that older voters have used their power at the ballot box to push for policies that specifically benefit them, though if in future there are many more of them they might start doing so.
Nor is there any sign of the intergenerational warfare predicted in the 1990s. After all, older people themselves mostly have families. In a recent study of parents and grown-up children in 11 European countries, Karsten Hank of Mannheim University found that 85% of them lived within 25km of each other and the majority of them were in touch at least once a week.
Even so, the shift in the centre of gravity to older age groups is bound to have a profound effect on societies, not just economically and politically but in all sorts of other ways too. Richard Jackson and Neil Howe of America’s CSIS, in a thoughtful book called The Graying of the Great Powers, argue that, among other things, the ageing of the developed countries will have a number of serious security implications.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
For example, the shortage of young adults is likely to make countries more reluctant to commit the few they have to military service. In the decades to 2050, America will find itself playing an ever-increasing role in the developed world’s defence effort. Because America’s population will still be growing when that of most other developed countries is shrinking, America will be the only developed country that still matters geopolitically (地缘政治上).
Ask me in 2020
There is little that can be done to stop population ageing, so the world will have to live with it. But some of the consequences can be alleviated. Many experts now believe that given the right policies, the effects, though grave, need not be catastrophic. Most countries have recognised the need to do something and are beginning to act.
But even then there is no guarantee that their efforts will work. What is happening now is historically unprecedented. Ronald Lee, director of the Centre on the Economics and Demography of Ageing at the University of California, Berkeley, puts it briefly and clearly: “We don’t really know what population ageing will be like, because nobody has done it yet. “
- In its 1994 report, the World Bank argued that the current pension system in most countries could ______.
- What message is conveyed in books like Young vs Old?
- One reason why pension and health care reforms are slow in coming is that ______.
- The author believes the most effective method to solve the pension crisis is to ______.
- The reason why employers are unwilling to keep older workers is that ______.
- To compensate for the fast-shrinking labour force, Japan would need ______.
- Why do many women in rich countries compromise by having only one child?
- Compared with younger ones, older societies are less inclined to ______________________________.
- The predicted intergenerational warfare is unlikely because most of the older people themselves _________________________.
- Countries that have a shortage of young adults will be less willing to commit them to ____________________________.
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D], and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
- [A] The man is the manager of the apartment building.
- [A] How the pictures will turn out. [C] What the man thinks of the shots.
- [A] There is no replacement for the handle.
- [A] He needs a vehicle to be used in harsh weather.
- [A] She cannot stand her boss’s bad temper.
- [A] Look for a shirt of a more suitable color and size.
- [A] At a “Lost and Found”. [C] At a trade fair.
- [A] Repair it and move in. [C] Convert it into a hotel.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
- [A] Unique descriptive skills. [C] Colourful world experiences.
- [A] A peaceful setting. [C] To be in the right mood.
- [A] They rely heavily on their own imagination.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
- [A] Good or bad, they are there to stay.
- [A] The frequent train delays. [C]The food sold on the trains.
- [A] The low efficiency of their operation.
- [A] They will be de-nationalised. [C] They are fast disappearing.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
- [A] The whole Antarctic region will be submerged.
- [A] How humans are to cope with global warming.
- [A] It collapsed at least once in the past 1.3 million years.
- [A] The West Antarctic region was once an open ocean.
Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
- [A] Whether we can develop social ties on the Internet.
- [A] The number of visits they receive. [C] The files they have collected.
- [A] When the system is down. [C] When the URL is reused.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
- [A] Some iced coffees have as many calories as a hot dinner.
- [A] Have some fresh fruit. [C] Take a hot shower.
- [A] They could enjoy a happier family life.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Psychologists are finding that hope plays a surprisingly vital role in giving people a measurable advantage in realms as (36) _____________ as academic achievement, bearing up in tough jobs and coping with (37) ______________ illness. And, by contrast, the loss of hope is turning out to be a stronger sign that a person may (38) ______________ suicide than other factors long thought to be more likely risks.
“Hope has proven a powerful predictor of (39) ______________ in every study we’ve done so far,” said Dr. Charles R. Snyder, a psychologist who has devised a (40) ______________ to assess how much hope a person has.
For example, in research with 3,920 college students, Dr. Snyder and his (41) ______________ found that the level of hope among freshmen at the beginning of their first semester was a more (42) ______________ predictor of their college grades than were their S.A.T. scores or their grade point (43) ______________ in high school, the two measures most commonly used to predict college performance.
(44)”___________________________________________________________________________________________,” Dr. Snyder said. “When you compare students of equivalent intelligence and past academic achievements, what sets them apart is hope.”
In devising a way to assess hope scientifically, Dr. Snyder (45)________________________
_______________________________. “That notion is not concrete enough, and it blurs two key components of hope,” Dr. Snyder said. (46)”_____________________________________________________________________.”
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
Most young boys are trained to believe that men should be strong, tough, cool, and detached. Thus, they learn early to hide vulnerable emotions such as love, joy, and sadness because they believe that such feelings are feminine and imply weakness. Over time, some men become strangers to their own emotional lives. It seems that men with traditional views of masculinity are more likely to suppress outward emotions and to fear emotions, supposedly because such feelings may lead to a loss of composure (镇定). Keep in mind, however, that this view is challenged by some researchers. As with many gender gaps, differences in emotionality tend to be small, inconsistent, and dependent on the situation. For instance, Robertson and colleagues found that males who were more traditionally masculine were more emotionally expressive in a structured exercise than when they were simply asked to talk about their emotions.
Males’ difficulty with “tender” emotions has serious consequences. First, suppressed emotions can contribute to stress-related disorders. And worse, men are less likely than women to seek help from health professionals. Second, men’s emotional inexpressiveness can cause problems in their relationships with partners and children. For example, men who endorse traditional masculine norms report lower relationship satisfaction, as do their female partners. Further, children whose fathers are warm, loving, and accepting toward them have higher self-esteem and lower rates of aggression and behavior problems. On a positive note, fathers are increasingly involving themselves with their children. And 30 percent of fathers report that they take equal or greater responsibility for their children than their working wives do.
One emotion males are allowed to express is anger. Sometimes this anger translates into physical aggression or violence. Men commit nearly 90 percent of violent crimes in the United States and almost all sexual assaults.
- Most young boys have been trained to believe that men who show tender feelings are considered to be ______________.
- Some men believe that if they expressed their emotions openly they might ______________.
- According to the author, men who suppress their emotions may develop ______________.
- Men who observe traditional masculine norms are said to derive less satisfaction from ______________.
- When males get angry, they can become ______________ or even commit violence.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D] You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
In the early 20th century, few things were more appealing than the promise of scientific knowledge. In a world struggling with rapid industrialization, science and technology seemed to offer solutions to almost every problem. Newly created state colleges and universities devoted themselves almost entirely to scientific, technological, and engineering fields. Many Americans came to believe that scientific certainty could not only solve scientific problems, but also reform politics, government, and business. Two world wars and a Great Depression rocked the confidence of many people that scientific expertise alone could create a prosperous and ordered world. After World War Ⅱ, the academic world turned with new enthusiasm to humanistic studies, which seemed to many scholars the best way to ensure the survival of democracy. American scholars fanned out across much of the world—with support from the Ford Foundation, the Fulbright program, etc.—to promote the teaching of literature and the arts in an effort to make the case for democratic freedoms.
In the America of our own time, the great educational challenge has become an effort to strengthen the teaching of what is now known as the STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and math). There is considerable and justified concern that the United States is falling behind much of the rest of the developed world in these essential disciplines. India, China, Japan, and other regions seem to be seizing technological leadership.
At the same time, perhaps inevitably, the humanities—while still popular in elite colleges and universities—have experienced a significant decline. Humanistic disciplines are seriously underfunded, not just by the government and the foundations but by academic institutions themselves. Humanists are usually among the lowest-paid faculty members at most institutions and are often lightly regarded because they do not generate grant income and because they provide no obvious credentials (资质) for most nonacademic careers.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
Undoubtedly American education should train more scientists and engineers. Much of the concern among politicians about the state of American universities today is focused on the absence of “real world” education—which means preparation for professional and scientific careers. But the idea that institutions or their students must decide between humanities and science is false. Our society could not survive without scientific and technological knowledge. But we would be equally impoverished (贫困的) without humanistic knowledge as well. Science and technology teach us what we can do. Humanistic thinking helps us understand what we should do.
It is almost impossible to imagine our society without thinking of the extraordinary achievements of scientists and engineers in building our complicated world. But try to imagine our world as well without the remarkable works that have defined our culture and values. We have always needed, and we still need, both.
- In the early 20th century Americans believed science and technology could _______.
- Why did many American scholars become enthusiastic about humanistic studies after World WarⅡ?
- Why are American scholars worried about education today?
- What accounts for the significant decline in humanistic studies today?
- Why does the author attach so much importance to humanistic studies?
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Will there ever be another Einstein? This is the undercurrent of conversation at Einstein memorial meetings throughout the year. A new Einstein will emerge, scientists say. But it may take a long time. After all, more than 200 years separated Einstein from his nearest rival, Isaac Newton.
Many physicists say the next Einstein hasn’t been born yet, or is a baby now. That’s because the quest for a unified theory that would account for all the forces of nature has pushed current mathematics to its limits. New math must be created before the problem can be solved.
But researchers say there are many other factors working against another Einstein emerging anytime soon.
For one thing, physics is a much different field today. In Einstein’s day, there were only a few thousand physicists worldwide, and the theoreticians who could intellectually rival Einstein probably would fit into a streetcar with seats to spare.
Education is different, too. One crucial aspect of Einstein’s training that is overlooked is the years of philosophy he read as a teenager—Kant, Schopenhauer and Spinoza, among others. It taught him how to think independently and abstractly about space and time, and it wasn’t long before he became a philosopher himself.
“The independence created by philosophical insight is—in my opinion—the mark of distinction between a mere artisan (工匠) or specialist and a real seeker after truth,” Einstein wrote in 1944.
And he was an accomplished musician. The interplay between music and math is well known. Einstein would furiously play his violin as a way to think through a knotty physics problem.
Today, universities have produced millions of physicists. There aren’t many jobs in science for them, so they go to Wall Street and Silicon Valley to apply their analytical skills to more practical—and rewarding—efforts.
“Maybe there is an Einstein out there today,” said Columbia University physicist Brian Greene, “but it would be a lot harder for him to be heard.”
Especially considering what Einstein was proposing.
“The actual fabric of space and time curving? My God, what an idea!” Greene said at a recent gathering at the Aspen Institute. “It takes a certain type of person who will bang his head against the wall because you believe you’ll find the solution.”
Perhaps the best examples are the five scientific papers Einstein wrote in his “miracle year” of 1905. These “thought experiments” were pages of calculations signed and submitted to the prestigious journal Annalen der Physik by a virtual unknown. There were no footnotes or citations.
What might happen to such a submission today?
“We all get papers like those in the mail,” Greene said. “We put them in the junk file.”
- What do scientists seem to agree upon, judging from the first two paragraphs?
- What was critical to Einstein’s success?
- What does the author tell us about physicists today?
- What does Brian Greene imply by saying “… it would be a lot harder for him to be heard” (Lines 1-2, Para. 9)?
- When he submitted his papers in 1905, Einstein _______.
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
America’s most popular newspaper website today announced that the era of free online journalism is drawing to a close. The New York Times has become the biggest publisher yet to 62 plans for a paywall around its digital offering, 63 the accepted practice that internet users will not pay for news.
Struggling 64 an evaporation of advertising and a downward drift in street corner sales, The New York Times 65 to introduce a “metered” model at the beginning of 2011. Readers will be required to pay when they have 66 a set number of its online articles per month.
The decision puts the 159-year-old newspaper 67 the charging side of an increasingly wide chasm (鸿沟) in the media industry. But others, including the Guardian, have said they will not 68 internet readers, and certain papers, 69 London’s Evening Standard, have gone further in abandoning readership revenue by making their print editions 70 .
The New York Times’s publisher, Arthur Sulzberger, 71 that the move is a gamble: “This is a 72 , to a certain degree, in where we think the web is going.”
Boasting a print 73 of 995,000 on weekdays and 1.4 million on Sundays, The New York Times is the third bestselling American newspaper, 74 the Wall Street Journal and USA Today. 75 most US papers focus on a single city, The New York Times is among the few that can 76 national scope—as well as 16 bureaus in the New York area, it has 11 offices around the US and 77 26 bureaus elsewhere in the world.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
But 78 many in the publishing industry, the paper is in the grip of a 79 financial crisis. Its parent company, the New York Times Company, has 15 papers, but 80 a loss of $70 million in the nine months to September and recently accepted a $250 million 81 from a Mexican billionaire, Carlos Slim, to strengthen its balance sheet.
- [A] set in [C] carry over
- [A] abusing [C] developing
- [A] with [C] along
- [A] engages [C] deliberates
- [A] exceeded [C] assumed
- [A] on [C] over
- [A] cost [C] expend
- [A] as for [C] such as
- [A] reliable [C] applicable
- [A] resisted [C] acknowledged
- [A] net [C] bet
- [A] evaluation [C] circulation
- [A] behind [C] before
- [A] If [C] Hence
- [A] ascend [C] lengthen
- [A] contributes [C] maintains
- [A] like [C] from
- [A] heavy [C] rough
- [A] targeted [C] suffered
- [A] asset [C] account
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
- There is no denying that you __________________________________ (越仔细越好) in dealing with this matter.
- Only when I reached my thirties _____________________________(我才意识到读书是不能被忽视的).
- Much _________________________________(使研究人员感到惊讶), the outcome of the experiment was far better than they had expected.
- Oh, my, I can’t find my key; ______________________________(我一定是把它忘在哪儿了).
- I ____________________________________________ (宁愿加入你们去做义工) than go to the beach for a holiday.
My View on University Ranking
In recent years, all kinds of University Ranking Lists can be found on some educational websites, or newspapers. The ranking standards also vary. These lists have great influence on students. They are even becoming the only scale to evaluate the colleges and universities.
People hold different views toward this phenomenon. Some believe that these lists help the students a lot, especially for those who will choose their university. While some other protest vigorously. In their points, the list is really ridiculous and harmful. In my view, the university ranking may have its own reference values, but its disadvantages overweigh its values.
For those university-students-to-be, they are supposed to choose the school according to his or her own situation, but not the so-called Ranking List. What’s more, how about the university students? How do they feel about themselves when they see the ranking? The list may become some intangible shackles for them if their own school ranks poorly.
In a nutshell, there is no easy method to rank these universities, but the Ranking, only helps students ignore the essentials, namely, their ninety-nine percent perspiration.
1.Different people have different views on——
- Some people perfer,——
- Others tend to, ——
4.As to me, I agree with / to ——
Reading Comprehension（Skimming and Scanning）
1．A not be sustained in the long term
2．B Intergenerational conflicts will intensify.
解析：从书名定位到原文第二段，heading for the rock, the cleaner, 都暗示了两代人之间的问题，最后的warfare则一目了然地指出了该矛盾。
3．D politicians are afraid of losing votes in the next election
4．A allow people to work longer
解析：从题干中the most effective method找到第五段第三句原话，直接选择A选项。
5．D younger workers are readily available
6．B large numbers of immigrants from overseas
7．B They find it hard to balance career and family.
8．be innovative and take risks than younger ones
解析：题目中old societies关键字对应到倒数第六段第三行，题目中的less inclined正好与原文中的more strongly disinclined形成对照，所以答案只需摘录之后的原文即可，即take risks than younger ones.
9．mostly have families
解析：要理解题目中less willing to 的含义，即不情愿，这样定位到倒数第三段第一句的reluctant， commit sth. to sth. ，空格内需要填写名词，参照原文，即military service.
- What can we infer from the conversation?
【答案】A The man is the manager of the apartment building
- What is the woman eager to know?
【答案】B How the pictures will turn out.
【解析】女士想知道的是if the shots I took are as good as I thought. 照片是不是和她想的异样好。这里shots指照片。turn out指照片拍出来的效果。因此选B。
- What does the man mean?
【答案】C The suitcase can be fixed in time.
【解析】男士说到find a handle后面提到 but that shouldn’t take too long说明不是没有handle可以匹配。因此排除A,B。
- What do we learn about the man from the conversation?
【答案】B He needs a vehicle to be used in harsh weather.
【解析】男士说到truck需要operate for long periods of time in very cold temperatures，因此选择选项B。very cold temperatures对应harsh weather.
- What do we learn about the woman?
【答案】A She has made up her mind to resign.
【解析】从文中女士强硬的口气I could no longer live with…可以看出她下定决心。因此选择A。
- What does the women want to do？
【答案】D Replace the shirt with one of some other material.
【解析】女士首先提到exchange the shirt，后面又解释了原因allergic to wool，从男士的回答也可以看出换成别的材质。因此选择D。
- Where does this conversation most probably take place?
【答案】D At a “Lost and Found”
【解析】男士首先问Did anyone happen to turn in a new handbag?，女士又问了他handbag的详细信息，可见是在失物招领处，选D。
- What does the man plan to do with his old house?
【答案】C Convert in into a hotel
【解析】but后面是真正意图: turning it into a guest house。guest house 意为宾馆，因此选C。
- What is the key to write a good classical detective story according to the man?
【答案】D Careful plotting and clueing.
【解析】对话中提到it must be so carefully plotted and so carefully clued，对应D选项。
- What does the man mainly need when working on a book?
【答案】D To be entirely alone.
【解析】对话中can’t even bare anybody else, be completely alone都说明该作家需要独立的写作空间，因此选择D。
- What does the man say about writers?
【答案】C They look at the world in a detached manner.
【解析】关键词detachment 分离。作家提到作者的经历和写作。虽然说道some experiences overwhelm everyone, 但是后面的but暗示了答案，stand aside、detachment都对应了C选项。
- What does the woman say about British railways?
【答案】B Like it or not, you have to use them.
【解析】在对话一开始，女士就提到了There’s only one railway system, if you don’t like a particular railway, you can’t go and use another. 因为只有一条铁路，即使不喜欢，也只能乘坐，换句话说不论喜欢与否都得用它。因此选择B。
- What do some people who write to the man complain about?
【答案】D The monopoly of British Railways.
- What does the man say threatens the existence of railways?
【答案】B Competition from other modes of transport.
【解析】对话中modes of transport are all around对应选项B。
- What does the man say about railways in other countries?
【答案】D They lose a lot of money.
West Antarctic ice sheet西南极洲大冰原 ice shelf 冰架 anchored 固定的
fossil 化石 microscopic marine plants 海洋微生物 geological 地质的
- What is one of the most frightening threats of global warming according to the passage?
【解析】C) Many coastal cities will be covered with water.
细节题。本题不难，从听力开头即可听到 “raising sea level so much that coastal cities from New York to Los Angles to Shanghai will be flooded” 所以选C选项。
- What do scientists disagree on?
【解析】B) How unstable the West Antarctic ice sheet is.
细节题。本题不难。注意关键句 “but Antarctic experts disagree strongly on just how unstable it is” 即可得出答案。
- What is the latest information revealed about the West Antarctic ice sheet?
【解析】A）It collapsed at least once during the past 1.3 million years.
细节题。注意提取关键信息 “new evidence reveals that all or most of the Antarctic ice sheet collapsed at least once during the past 1.3 million years” 所以选A选项。
- What the scientists’ latest findings suggest?
【解析】A) The West Antarctic region was once a open ocean.
细节题。听力最后的例子说明了这一点“which suggest that the region was once open ocean not solid ice”， 而其他选项都不是最新的发现。
30 B）Whether a deleted photo is immediately removed from the web.
【解析】听力一开始作者就建议我们尝试删除自己上传的照片“Take a photo and upload it to Facebook, then after a day or so, note what the URL link to the picture is and then delete it.”，由此可知应该选B。
31 B) The way they store data.
【解析】“Why do “deleted” photos stick around so long? The problem relates to the way data is stored on large websites”，从这句话可知图片之所以不能立即删除跟它们存储的方式有关。
32 C) When the URL is reused.
【解析】“In the case of Facebook, the company says data may hang around until the URL in question is reused”，从这句话可知只有URL被再次用到才会被删除。
解析：第一段原文可以找到对应句子，即some iced coffees contain as many calories as a hot dinner.
解析：第一段原文中有对应语句，即Better skip dinner or hit the gym afterwards.
解析：在此句中，“The WCRF has estimated that 19,000 cancers a year in Britain could be prevented…”，关键词prevented可以得知答案为C选项。
- Students with high hope set themselves higher goals and know how to work to attain them,
- went beyond the simple notion that hope is merely the sense that everything will turn out all right.
- Having hope means believing you have both the will and the way to accomplish your goals, whatever they may be.
Reading Comprehension（Reading in Depth）
47.feminine and weak
解析：文中提到…because they believe that such feelings are feminine and imply weakness. 要填在to be后面就应该转化成形容词形式。
解析：文中提到may lead to a loss of composure。要用在主语后面就要把loss变成动词lose。
解析：文中提到can contribute to stress-related disorder。
50.their relationship with partners
解析：文中提到…report lower relationship satisfaction as do their female partners.故这里要重新组合转换表达形式。
解析：文中提到…into physically aggression or violence，而此处在become后就要用aggression的形容词形式。
52) A solve virtually existing all problems
细节题。抓住时间点“In the early 2oth century” 我们从第一句 “offer solutions to almost every problem” 便可知道答案。选择A选项。
53) D They realized that science and technology alone were no guarantee for a better world.
推论题。 我们首先比较容易排除A和C项。B项具有迷惑性，关键是看“the stability of a society depended heavily on humanistic study”这个选项仔细看就会发现说得太绝对了，社会的问题主要是靠人文主义的研究？显然不是很恰当。我们从下面那句也可以推断出选D比较恰当。 “Two world wars and a Great Depression rocked the confidence of many people that scientific expertise alone could create a prosperous and ordered world.”
54) C America is lagging behind in the STEMS disciplines.
细节题。主要在第二段里找答案。从段落后两句“There is considerable and justified concern that the United States is falling behind much of the rest of the developed world in these essential disciplines.” 我们可以推断出是选C选项。 A和D选项比较容易排除。不选B选项，因为文章中 “India, China, Japan, and other regions seem to be seizing technological leadership.” seem to 表明这几个国家只是有种趋势，但还没有have overtaken。
55) A Insufficient funding.
细节题。我们在第三段里可以找到答案。 从“…are seriously underfunded…” “Humanists are usually among the lowest-paid faculty members…” 这些信息中，可以很快知道是A选项。
56) C Humanistic thinking helps cultivate and define our culture and values.
细节题。本题不难。作者为什么如此着重人文主义的研究，其他三项都是非常具体的，且都不是重点。只有C选项符合。且我们从最后这一句 “But try to imagine our world as well without the remarkable works that have defined our culture and values.” 及作者的语气可以更加确定是C选项。
- D. It will be some time before a new Einstein emerges.
- B. His independent and abstract thinking
- D. They often go into fields yielding greater financial benefits.
- D. Nobody will read papers on apparently ridiculous theories.
解析：正确答案选择D。结合Greene讲的话，他说What an idea!还说是需要把头往墙上撞的人才会相信能找到个解决方案呢！说明内容实在是比较荒诞。
- B. was little known in academic circles
解析：正确答案选择B，说的是爱因斯坦在学术圈里面默默无闻，跟原文里面的“by a virtual unknown”相对应。有迷惑性的选择项是D,因为文中提到了爱因斯坦的文章没有配上脚注和注释footnote and citations.但是D选择项是说，爱因斯坦不懂得论文的格式，这个属于过度推理了。
62 B set out set out plans
63 D abandoning abandon
放弃，once unshakeable orthodoxy表示曾经不可动摇的做法，也就是现在要放弃了。
64 A with struggle with
65 B intends intend to
表示打算…,从后面的at the beginning of 2011，可知还没有这么做，只是计划或者打算这么做。
66 A exceeded
67 A on
和side搭配，on the side of …表示拥护…；站在…一边。
68 D charge
69 C such as
表示举例，从后面举London’s Evening Standard作为例子，可知应该选such as.
70 B free
前面提到abandon readership revenue，即放弃读者收益，由此可知应该是make print editions free.
71 C acknowledged
72 C bet
73 C circulation
74 A behind NYT
排名第三，即排在the Wall Street Journal and USA Today后面。
75 B While while
76 D claim
77 C maintains
78 A like
79 D serious
80 C suffered
遭受，suffer a loss遭受损失，常见搭配。
81 D loan
- There is no denying that you ___________(越仔细越好) in dealing with this matter.
解析：can never be too careful / can not be too careful
【考点解释】本题考查“越仔细越好”“再…也不为过”的固定搭配，即can never be too/can not be too + adj.
- Only when I reached my thirties __________________________ (我才意识到读书是不能被忽视的)
解析：did I realize that reading cannot be neglected
did I realize that reading is unignorable
【考点解释】本题考查由only when 引起的局部倒装。当only when置于句首，主句用局部倒装，即将助动词置于主语前面。only when引导句子时态为过去时（reached），为保持时态一致，主句助动词用did；注意被动语态的使用，reading与neglect为被动关系。同时也可以使用be+adj的结构。
- Much ___________________ (使研究人员感到惊讶)，the outcome of the experiment was far better than they had expected.
解析：to the researchers’ surprise
【考点解释】本题考查固定搭配 to one’s surprise 使…惊讶的是…
- Oh, my, I can’t find my key; __________________________（我一定是把它放在哪儿了）。
解析：I must have left / put it somewhere.
86．I ________________________(宁愿加入你们去做义工)than go to the beach for a holiday.
解析：would rather join you as a volunteer
【考点解释】考查结构“宁愿…也不愿…”, 因题干中已存在“than go”的结构，只能使用 “would rather do rather than do”。加入… join sb