Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)
Part Ⅱ Rading comprehension (Skimming and scanning) (15minutes)
In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passsage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B),C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Univeraities Branch Out
As never before in their long story, universities have become instruments of national
competition as well as instruments of peace. They are the place of the scientific discoveries that
move economies forward, and the primary means of educating the talent required to obtain and
maintain competitive advantages. But at the same time, the opening of national borders to the flow
of goods, services, information and especially people has made universities a powerful force for
global integration, mutual understanding and geopolitical stability.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
In response to the same forces that have driven the world economy, universities have become
More self-consciousy global: seeking students from around the world who represent the entire
range of cultures and values, sending their own students abroad to prepare them for global careers,
offering courses of study that address the challenges of an interconnected world and collaborative
(合作的)research programs to advance science for the benefit of all humanity.
Of the forces shaping higher education none is more sweeping than the movement across borders. Over the past three decades the number of students leaving home each year to study abroad has grown at an annual rate of 3.0 percent, from 8000,000 in 1975 to 2.5 million in 2994. Most travel from one developed nation to another, but the flow from developing to developed countries id growing rapidly. The reverse flow, from developed to developing countries, is on the rise, too. Today foreign students earn 30 percent of the doctoral degrees awarded in the United States and 38 percent of those in the United Kingdom. And the number crossing borders for undergraduate study is growing as well, to 8 percent of the undergraduates at America’s best institutions and 10 percent of all undergraduates in the U.K. In the United States, 20 percent of the newly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born, and in China many newly hired faculty hired faculty members at the top research universities received their graduate education abroad.
Universities are also encouraging students to spend some of their undergraduate years in another country. In Europe, more than 140,000 students participate in the Erasmus program each year, taking courses for credit in one of 2, 2000 participating institutions across the continent. And in the United States, institutions are helping place students in summer internships(实习)abroad to prepare them for global careers. Yale and Harvard have led the way, offering every undergraduate at least one international study or internship opportunity and providing the financial resources to make it possible.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
Globalization is also reshaping the way research is done. One new trend involves sourcing portions of a research program to another country. Yale professor and Howard Hughes Medical Shanghai’s Fudan University, in collaboration with faculty colleagues from both schools. The Shanghai center has 95 employees and graduate students working in a 4,300-square-meter laboratory seminars with scientists from both campuses. The arrangement benefits both countries;
Xu’s Yale lab is more productive, thanks to the lower costs of conducing from a word-class scientist and his U.S. team.
As a result of its strength in science, the United States has consistently led of the world in the world in the commercialization of major new technologies, from the mainframe computer and integrated circuit of the 1960s to the internet infrastructure(基础设施)and applications software of
the 1990s.The link between university-based science and industrial application is often indirect but sometimes highly visible: Silicon Valley was intentionally created by Stanford University, and
Route 128 outside Boston has long housed companies spun off from MIT and Harvard. Around the world ,governments have encouraged copying of his model, perhaps most successfully in Cambridge, England, where Microsoft and scores of other leading software and biotechnology companies have set up shop around the university.
For all its success, the United States remains deeply hesitant about sustaining the research university model. Most politician recognize the link between investment in science and national
Economic strength, but support for research funding has been unsteady. The budget of the National Institutes of Health doubled between 1998 and 2003,but has risen more slowly than inflations since then. Support for the physical sciences and engineering barely kept pace with inflation during that same period. The attempt to make up lost ground is welcome, but the nation would be better served by steady, predictable increases in science funding at the rate of long-term GDP growth, which is on the order of inflation plus 3 percent per year.
American politicians have great difficulty recognizing that admitting more foreign students can greatly promote the national interest by increasing international understanding. Adjusted for inflation, public funding for international exchanges and foreign-language study is well below the levels of 40 years ago. In the wake of September 11,changes in the visa process caused a dramatic decline in the number of foreign students seeking admission to U.S. Universities, and a corresponding surge in enrollments in Australia, Singapore and the U .K. Objections from Americans university and business leaders led to improvements in the process and a reversal of the decline ,but the United States is still seen by many as unwelcoming to international students.
Most Americans recognize that universities contribute to the nation’s well-being through their scientific research, but many fear that foreign students threaten American competitiveness by taking their knowledge and skills back home. They fail to grasp that welcoming foreign students and like immigrants throughout history-strength the nation; and second, foreign students who study in the United States become ambassadors for many of its most cherished(珍视) values when they return home. Or at least they understand them better. In America as elsewhere, few Instruments of foreign policy are as effective in promoting peace and stability as welcoming international university students.
1．From the first paragraph we know that present –day universities have become
A．more and more research-oriented
B．in-service training organizations
C．more popularized than ever before
D．a powerful force for global integration
2．Over the past three decades, the enrollment of overseas students has increased
C．at an annual rate of 3.9 percent
D．at an annual rate of 8 percent
3．In the United States, how many of the newly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born?
A．10% B．20% C．30% D．38%
4．How do Yale and Harvard prepare their undergraduates for global careers?
A．They organize a series of seminars on world economy
B．They offer them various courses in international politics
C．They arrange for them to participate in the Erasmus program
D．They give them chances for international study or internship
5．An example illustrating the general trend of universities’ globalization is
A．Yale’s collaboration with Fudan University on genetic research
B．Yale’s helping Chinese universities to launch research projects
C．Yale’s student exchange program with European institutions
D．Yale’s establishing branch campuses throughout the world
6．What do we learn about Silicon Valley from the passage?
A．It houses many companies spun off from MIT and Harvard
B．It is known to be the birthplace of Microsoft Company
C．It was intentionally created by Stanford University
D．It is where the Internet infrastructure was built up
7．What is said about the U.S. federal funding for research?
A．It has increased by 3 percent
B．It has been unsteady for years
C．It has been more than sufficient
D．It doubled between 1998 and 2003
8．The dramatic decline in the enrollment of foreign students in the U.S after September 11 was caused by
9．Many Americans fear that American competiveness may be threatened by foreign students who will
10．The policy of welcoming foreign students can benefit the U.S. in that the very best of them will stay and
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Direction: In his section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A),B),C) and D),and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet2 with a single line through the centre.
- A) She used to be in poor health.
- C) She was somewhat overweight
- B) She was popular among boys.
- D) She didn’t do well at high school.
- A) At he airport.
- B) In a restaurant.
- C) In a booking office.
- D) At the hotel reception.
- A) Teaching her son by herself.
- B) Having confidence in her son.
- C) Asking the teacher for extra help.
- D) Telling her son not to worry.
- A) Have a short break.
- B) Take two weeks off.
- C) Continue her work outdoors.
- D) Go on vacation with the man.
- A) He is taking care of this twin brother.
- B) He ha been feeling ill all week.
- C) He is worried about Rod’s health.
- D) He has been in perfect condition.
- A) She sold all her furniture before she moved house.
- B) She still keeps some old furniture in her new house.
- C) She plans to put all her old furniture in the basement.
- D) She brought a new set of furniture from Italy last month.
- A) The woman wondered why the man didn’t return the book.
- B) The woman doesn’t seem to know what the book is about.
- C) The woman doesn’t find the book useful any more.
- D) The woman forgot lending the book to the man.
- A) Most of the man’s friends are athletes.
- B) Few people share the woman’s opinion.
- C) The man doesn’t look like a sportsman.
- D) The woman doubts the man’s athletic ability.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have heard.
- A) She has packed it in one of her bags.
- B) She has probably left it in a taxi.
- C) She id going to get it the airport.
- D) She is afraid that she has lost it.
20) A) It ends in winter.
- B) It will cost her a lot.
- C) It will last one week.
- D) It depends on the weather.
- A) The plane is taking off soon.
- B) There might be a traffic jam.
- C) The taxi is waiting for them.
- D) There is a lot of stuff to pack.
- A) At home.
- B) In the man’s car.
- C) At the airport.
- D) By the side of a taxi.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
- A) She is thirsty for promotion.
- B) She wants a much higher salary.
- C) She is tired of her present work.
- D) She wants to save travel expenses.
- A) Translator.
- B) Travel agent.
- C) Language instructor.
- D) Environment engineer.
- A) Lively personality and inquiring mind.
- B) Communication skills and team spirit.
- C) Devotion and work efficiency.
- D) Education and experience.
In this section, you will hear 3 short passage. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a questions , you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C)and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26．A. They care a lot about children.
- They need looking after in their old age.
- They want to enrich their life experience.
- They want children to keep them company.
- A. They are usually adopted from distant places.
- Their birth information is usually kept secret.
- Their birth parents often try to conceal their birth information.
- Their adoptive parents don’t want them to know their birth parents.
- A. They generally hold bad feelings towards their birth parents.
- They do not want to hurt the feelings of their adoptive parents.
- They have mixed feelings about finding their natural parents.
- They are fully aware of the expenses involved in the search.
- A. Early adoption makes for closer parent-child relationship.
- Most people prefer to adopt children from overseas.
- Understanding is the key to successful adoption.
- Adoption has much to do with love.
Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
- A. He suffered from mental illness.
- He bought the washing on post.
- He turned a failing newspaper into a success.
- He was once a reporter for a major newspaper.
- A. She was the first woman to lead a big U.S. publishing company.
- She got her first job as a teacher at the University of Chicago.
- She committed suicide because of her mental disorder.
- She took over her father’s position when he died.
- A. People came to see the role of women in the business world.
- Katharine played a major part in reshaping Americans’ mind.
- American media would be quite different without Katharine.
- Katharine had exerted an important influence on the world.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
- A. It’ll enable them to enjoy the best medical care.
- It’ll allow them to receive free medical treatment.
- It’ll protect them from possible financial crises.
- It’ll prevent the doctors from overcharging them.
34．A. They can’t immediately get back the money paid for their medical cost.
- They have to go through very complicated application procedures.
- They can only visit doctors who speak their native languages.
- They may not be able to receive timely medical treatment.
35．A. They don’t have to pay for the medical services.
- They needn’t pay the entire medical bill at once.
- They must send the receipts to the insurance company promptly.
- They have to pay a much higher price to get an insurance policy.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
More and more of the word’s population are living in towns or cities. The speed at which cities are growing in the less developed countries is(36) ____. Between 1920 and 1960 big cities in developed countries(37) _____two and a half times in size, but in other parts of the world the growth was eight times their size.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
They(38) ____size of growth is bad enough, but there are now also very(39)____signs of trouble in the(40) _____of percentages of people living in towns and percentages of people working in industry. During the nineteenth century cities grew as a result of the growth of industry. In Europe the(41)_____of people living in cities was always smaller than that of the (42)_____working in factories. Now, however, the(43)_______is almost always true in the newly industrialized world:(44) ______________________________________ .
Without a base of people working in industry, these cities cannot pay for their growth;(45)________________
_______________________________________ . There has been little opportunity to build water supplies or other facilities. (46) _________________________ a growth in the number of hopeless and despairing parents and starving children.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section．There is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
As war spreads to many comers of the globe, Children sadly have been drawn into the center of conflicts. In Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Colombia, however, groups of children have been taking part in peace education 47 .The children, after learning to resolve conflicts, took on the 48 of peacemakers. The Children’s Movement for peacemakers was even nominated(提名) or the Nobel peace prize in 1998. Groups of children 49 is peacemakers studied human rights an poverty issues in Colombia, eventually forming a group with five other schools in Bogota known a The Schools of Peace.
The classroom 50 opportunities for children to replace angry, violent behaviors with 51 ,peaceful ones. It is in the classroom that caring and respect for each person empowers children to take a step 52 toward becoming peacemakers. Fortunately, educators have access to many online resources that are 53 useful when helping children along the path to peace. The Young Peacemakers Club, started in 1992, provides a Website with resources for teachers and 54 on staring a Kindness Campaign. The World Centers of Compassion for Children International call attention to children’s rights and how to help the 55 of war. Starting a Peacemakers’ Club is a praiseworthy venture for a class an one that could spread to other classrooms an ideally affect the culture of the 56 school.
- A) acting I) information
- B) assuming J) offers
- C) comprehensive K) projects
- D) cooperative L) respectively
- E) entire M) role
- F) especially N) technology
- G) forward O) victims
- H) images
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section . Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them are four choices marked A), B), C) and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on following passage.
By almost any measure , there is a boom in Internet-based instruction . In just a few years , 34 percent of American universities have begun offering some form of distance learning (DL), and among the larger schools , it’s closer to 90 percent . If you doubt the popularity of the trend, you probably haven’t. It enrolls 90,000 student, a statistic used to support its claim to be the largest private university in the country.
While the kinds of instruction offered in these programs will differ, DL usually signifies a course in which the instructions post syllabi(课程大纲), reading assignments , and schedules on Websites , and students send in their assignments by e-mail . Generally speaking, face-to-face communication with an instructor is minimized or eliminated altogether.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
The attraction for students might at first seem obvious. Primarily , there’s the convenience promised by courses on the Net: you can do the work, as they say , in your pajamas(睡衣). But figures indicate that the reduced effort results in a reduced commitment to the course. While dropout rates for all freshmen at American universities is around 20 percent, the rate for online students is 35 percent. Students themselves seem to understand the weaknesses inherent in the setup. In a survey conducted for Cornell, the DL division of Cornell University, less than a third of the respondents expected the quality of the online course to be as good as the classroom course.
Cleary form the schools perspective , there’s a lot of money to be saved . Although some of the more ambitious programs require new investments in servers and networks to support collaborative software , most DL courses can run on existing or minimally upgraded(升级)systems . The more students who enroll in a course but don’t come to campus, the more the school saves on keeping the lights on in the classrooms , paying doorkeepers , and maintaining parking lots , And there’s evidences that instructors must work harder to run a DL course for a variety of reasons , won’t be paid any more , and might well be paid less.
- What is the most striking feature of the University of Phoenix?
- A) All its courses are offered online.
- B) Its online courses are of the best quality.
- C) It boasts the largest number of students on campus
- D) Anyone taking its online courses is sure to get a degree.
58．According to the passage , distance learning is basically characterized by_____
- A) A considerable flexibility in its academic requirements
- B) The great diversity of students’ academic backgrounds
- C) A minimum or total absence of face-to-face instruction
- D) t the casual relationship between students and professors
- Many students take Internet -based courses mainly because they can_____
- A) Earn their academic degrees with much less effort
- B) Save a great deal on traveling and boarding expenses
- C) Select courses from various colleges and universities
- D) Work on the required courses whenever and wherever
- What accounts for the high drop-out rates for online students?
- A) There is no strict control over the academic standards of the courses.
- B) The evaluation system used by online universities is inherently weak.
- C) There is no mechanism to ensure that they make the required effort.
- D) Lack of classroom interaction reduces the effectiveness of instruction.
- According to the passage, universities show great enthusiasm for DL programs for the purpose of_____
- A) building up their reputation C) upgrading their teaching facilities
- B) cutting down on their expenses D) providing convenience for students
Questions62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
In this age of Internet chat, videogames and reality television, there is no shortage of mindless activities to keep a child occupied. Yet, despite the competition, my 8-year-old daughter Rebecca wants to spend her leisure time writing short stories. She wants to enter one of her stories into a writing contest, a competition she won last yes.
As a writer I know about winning contest, and about losing them. I know what it is like to work hard on a story only to receive a rejection slip from the publisher. I also know the pressures of trying to live up to a reputation created by previous victories. What if she doesn’t win the contest again? That’s the strange thing about being a parent. So many of our own past scars and dashed hopes can surface.
A revelation(启示)came last week when I asked her, “Don’t you want to win again?” “No,” she replied, “I just want to tell the story of an angel going to first grade.”
I had just spent weeks correcting her stories as she spontaneously(自由地)told them. Telling myself that I was merely an experienced writer guiding the young writer across the hall, I offered suggestions for characters, conflicts and endings for her tales. The story about a fearful angel starting first trade was quickly “guided” by me into the tale of a little girl with a wild imagination taking her fist music lesson. I had turned her contest into my contest without even realizing it.
Staying back and giving kids space to grow is not as easy as it looks. Because I know very little about farm animals who use tools or angels who go to first grade, I had to accept the fact that I was co-opting(借用)my daughter’s experience.
While stepping back was difficult for me, it was certainly a good first step that I will quickly follow with more steps, putting myself far enough away to give her room but close enough to help if asked. All the while I will be reminding myself that children need room to experiment, grow and find their own voices.
- What do we learn from the first paragraph?
- A) Children do find lots of fun in many mindless activities.
- B) Rebecca is much too occupied to enjoy her leisure time.
- C) Rebecca draws on a lot of online materials for her writing.
- D) A lot of distractions compete for children’s time nowadays.
- What did the author say about her own writing experience?
- A) She did not quite live up to her reputation as a writer.
- B) Her way to success was full of pains and frustrations.
- C) She was constantly under pressure of writing more.
- D) Most of her stories had been rejected by publishers.
- Why did Rebecca want to enter this year’s writing contest?
- A) She believed she possessed real talent for writing.
- B) She was sure of winning with her mother’s help.
- C) She wanted to share her stories with readers.
- D) She had won a prize in the previous contest.
- What’s the author’s advice for parents?https://www.ienglishcn.com/
- A) A writing career, though attractive, is not for every child to pursue.
- B) Children should be allowed freedom to grow through experience.
- C) Parents should keep an eye on the activities their opinions.
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A)，B),C)and D)on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
One factor that can influence consumers is
their mood state. Mood may be defined __67__ a 67．A)as C)by
temporary and mild positive or negative feeling B)about D)with
that is generalized and not tied __68__ any particular 68．A)over C)to
circumstance. Moods should be __69__ from 69．A)derived C)divided
emotions which are usually more intense, __70__ to 70．A)related C)attached
specific circumstances, and often conscious. B)referred D)associated
__71__ one sense, the effect of a consumer’s mood 71．A)On C)In
can be thought of in __72__ the same way as can 72．A)thus C)even
our reactions to the __73__ of our friends—when our 73．A)signal C)view
friends are happy and “up”, that tends to influence B)gesture D)behavior
us positively, __74__ when they are “down”, that can 74．A)for C)unless
have a __75__ impact on us. Similarly, consumers 75．A)relative C)negative
operating under a __76__ mood state tend to react to 76．A)given C)fixed
stimulate(刺激因素)in a direction __77__ with that 77．A)resistant C)insistent
mood state. Thus, for example, we should expect B)persistent D)consistent
to see __78__ in a positive mood state evaluate 78．A)consumer C)retailers
products in more of a __79__ manner than they 79．A)casual C)serious
would when not in such a state, __80__ mood states 80．A)However C)Moreover
appear capable of __81__ a consumer’s meomory. 81. A)lifting C)raising
Moods appear to be __82__ influenced by mar- 82. A)readily C)cautiously
keting techniques. For example, the rhythm, pitch, B)rarely D)currently
and __83__ of music has been shown to influence 83. A)step C)band
Behavior such as the __84__ of time spent in 84. A)extent C)scope
Supermarkets or __85__ to purchase products. In 85. A)facilities C)reflections
Addition, advertising can influence consumers’ B)capacities D)intensions
moods which, in __86__, are capable of influencing 86. A)turn C)detail
consumers’ reactions to products. B)total D)depth
Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
87. ____________________ (多亏了一系列的新发明)，doctors can treat this disease
88. In my sixties, one change I notice is that ________________ (我比以前更容易累了).
89. I am going to purchase this course, _________________________ (无论我要作出什么样的牺牲).
90. I would prefer shopping online to shopping in a department store _____________________________________ (它更加方便和省时).
91. Many Americans live on credit, and their quality of life ______________ (是用他们能够借到多少来衡量的)，not how much they can earn.
1. D) a powerful force for global integration
2. C) at an annual rate of 3.9 percent
3. B) 20%
4. D) They give them chances for international study or internship
5. A) Yale’s collaboration with Fudan University on genetic research
6. C) It was intentionally created by Stanford University.
7. B) It has been unsteady for years.
8. changes in the visa process
9. take their knowledge and skills back home
10. strengthen the nation
11. C) She was somewhat overweight
12. D) At a hotel reception
13. B) Having confidence in her son
14. A) Have a short break
15. D) He has been in perfect condition
16. B) She still keeps some old furniture in her new house
17. D) The woman forgot lending the book to the man
18. C) The man doesn’t look like a sportsman
19. A）She has packed it in one of her bags.
20. C) It will last one week.
21. B) The taxi is waiting for them.
22. A) At home.
23. C) She is tired of her present work.
24. A) Translator.
25. D) Education and experience.
26. A) They care a lot about children.
27. B) Their birth information is usually kept secret.
28. C) They have mixed feelings about finding their natural parents.
29. D) Adoption has much to do with love.
30. B) He bought The Washington Post.
31. A) She was the first woman to lead a big U.S publishing company.
32. D) Katharine had exerted an important influence on the world.
33. C) It’ll protect them from possible financial crises.
34. A) They can’t immediately get back the money paid for their medical cost.
35. B) They needn’t pay the entire medical bill at once.
44. The percentage of people living in cities is much higher than the percentage working in industry.
45. There is not enough money to build adequate houses for the people that live there, let alone the new arrivals.
46. So the figures for the growth of towns and cities represent proportional growth of unemployment and underemployment
47. K. projects
48. M. role
49. A. acting
50. J. offers
51. D. cooperative
52. G. forward
53. F. especially
54. I. information
55. O. victims
56. E. entire.
阅读 Section B
- A) All its courses are offered online.
58. C) a minimum or total absence of face-to-face instruction.
59. D) work on the required courses whenever and wherever.
60. C) There is no mechanism to ensure that they make the required effort.
61. B) cutting down on their expenses.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
62. D) A lot of distractions compete for children’s time nowadays.
63. B) Her way to success was full of pains and frustrations.
64. C) She wanted to share her stories with readers.
65. A) she believed she had the knowledge and experience to offer guidance
66. B) Children should be allowed freedom to grow through experience.
67) A as
68) C to
69) D distinguished
70) A related
71) C In
72) B much
73) D behavior
74) B but
75) C negative
76) A given
77) D consistent
78） A consumers
79) D favorable
80) C Moreover
81) B enhancing
82) A readily
83) D volume
84) B amount
85) D intentions
86) A turn
87. Thanks to a series of new inventions
88. I am more inclined to get tired than before
89. no matter what kind of sacrifice I will make
90. the former is more convenient and time-saving / it is more….
91. is measured by how much they can borrow
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