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英语动词不定式的用法

在许多日常语法程序中,我们谈到了一种叫做不定式动词形式的动词形式。

英语动词不定式的用法:我们一起跟着英语老师来了解一些英语动词不定式的用法语音分享,点击下面的mp3即可收听!

On many Everyday Grammar programs, we have talked about a verb form called an infinitive.

在许多日常语法程序中,我们谈到了一种叫做不定式动词形式的动词形式。

By now in your English learning journey, you have heard and used infinitives hundreds of times. For example, if someone says to you, “It is great to see you,” they are using the infinitive “to see.” If you say, “I love to learn English,” you are using the infinitive “to learn.”
现在,在你的英语学习之旅中,你已经听到并使用了数百次。例如,如果有人对你说,”见到你很棒”,他们使用不定式”看”。如果你说,”我喜欢学英语”,你使用的是”学习”。

英语动词不定式的用法 -1

Infinitives usually begin with the word “to” and are followed by a verb in its base form. An easy way to find an infinitive in a sentence is to look for the structure to + base verb. But, be careful! Not every phrase that begins with “to” is an infinitive. In fact, we use the word “to” in prepositional phrases, as in the sentence, “We went to the store.”https://www.ienglishcn.com/
不定式通常以单词”to”开始,后跟一个动词的基本形式。在句子中查找不定式结构的一个简单方法是查找结构为 _ base 动词。但是,要小心!并不是每个以”to”开头的短语都是不定式。事实上,我们在介词短语中使用”to”一词,如在句子中,”我们去了商店”。

Although we sometimes call them “infinitive verbs,” these word forms do not act as verbs at all. Instead, they can act like nouns, adjectives or adverbs. On today’s program, we will talk about how infinitives act as different parts of speech.
虽然我们有时称它们为”不定式动词”,但这些词形式一点也不作为动词。相反,它们可以像名词、形容词或副词一样。在今天的节目中,我们将讨论不定式如何作为演讲的不同部分。

As adjectives
作为形容词

Let’s begin by talking about adjectives.
让我们先谈谈形容词。

Just like a single-word adjective, when an infinitive acts as an adjective, it gives more information about a noun. In the following example, there are two nouns. Listen for the infinitive and think about which noun it is describing:
就像单字形容词一样,当一个不定式形容词作为形容词时,它给出了更多关于名词的信息。在下面的示例中,有两个名词。倾听不定式,思考它描述的名词:

I sometimes buy magazines to read.
我有时买杂志看。

Which noun do you think the infinitive “to read” describes?
你认为不定式”阅读”描述哪个名词?

The answer is “magazine.”
答案是”杂志”。

When infinitives act as adjectives, we call them adjectival infinitives.
当不定式作为形容词时,我们称它们为形容词。

Adjectival infinitives can also be longer phrases than just to + base verb. Listen to this example:
形容词的不定式短语也可以比仅仅对 + 基本动词长。听以下示例:

The only way to get that screw out is with a power tool.
把螺丝钉掉的唯一方法就是用电动工具。

In this case, the adjectival infinitive is “to get that screw out” and it describes the noun “way.”
在这种情况下,邻接不定式是”把螺丝钉出来”,它描述了名词”方式”。

As adverbs
作为副词

Now, let’s find out how an infinitive can act as an adverb.
现在,让位利人了解一个无限式如何充当副词。

Infinitives are sometimes used to express a purpose. When they are, they carry the meaning of “for the purpose of” or “for the reason of.” In other words, they tell us why someone does something.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
不定式有时被用来表达目的。当它们具有”为了”或”出于原因”的含义时。换句话说,他们告诉我们为什么有人做某事。

Just like single-word adverbs, adverbial infinitives always describe verbs. Listen to this next example and try to identify the purpose the speaker gives for his action:
就像单字副词一样,副词不定式总是描述动词。听下一个例子,并尝试确定演讲者为他的行为给出的目的:

I watch Learning English videos to improve my listening skills.
我看学习英语的视频,以提高我的听力技能。

Here, the infinitive is “to improve” but it is part of a longer phrase that acts as the adverb. So the full adverbial infinitive is: “to improve my listening skills.” It tells us the reason the speaker watches Learning English videos.
在这里,不定式是”改进”,但它是作为副词的较长短语的一部分。因此,完整的副词不定式是:”提高我的听力技能。它告诉我们说话者观看学习英语视频的原因。

Adverbial infinitives can also appear in other parts of a sentence, such as at the beginning. For instance, a speaker could say this:
副词不定式也可以出现在句子的其他部分,如开头。例如,演讲者可以这样说:

To improve my listening skills, I watch Learning English videos.
为了提高我的听力能力,我看学习英语的视频。

As nouns:
作为名词:

And finally, we move to infinitives as nouns. We call them nominal infinitives.
最后,我们以名词为名。我们称它们为名义上的不定式。

When infinitives act as nouns, they can have several functions in a sentence. We will focus on them as direct objects and subjects. Nominal infinitives are generally part of longer phrases that, together, make a noun phrase.
当不定式充当名词时,它们可以在句子中具有多个函数。我们将关注它们作为直接对象和主题。名义不定式通常是较长短语的一部分,这些短语一起成为名词短语。

Listen to this example and then I will tell you more:
听这个例子,然后我会告诉你更多:

I want to be a millionaire!
我想成为百万富翁!

In this case, the nominal infinitive is part of a noun phrase that acts as the direct object. That phrase is “to be a millionaire.”
在这种情况下,名义不定式是充当直接对象的名词短语的一部分。这句话是”成为百万富翁”。

Nominal infinitives can also act as subjects. But this sentence structure is neither common in everyday speaking nor in formal speech or writing. Generally, you will find it in creative writing and literature.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
名义上的不定式也可以作为主题。但这种句子结构在日常口语中和正式的演讲或写作中既不常见。一般来说,你会发现它在创造性的写作和文学。

Listen to an example:
听一个例子:

To write music was his passion.
写音乐是他的激情。

Here, the noun phrase “to write music” (which includes the infinitive “to write”) is the subject of the sentence.
在这里,名词短语”写音乐”(包括不定的”写”)是句子的主题。

Bare infinitives
裸不定式

Alright, we have covered a lot. Now we just have one more thing to quickly touch on: bare infinitives.
好吧, 我们已经覆盖了很多。现在,我们还有一件事要快速触及:裸露的不定式。

Bare infinitives do not have the word “to” in front of them. Often, you will see them used with modal verbs. For instance, in the sentence, “You must follow social distancing rules,” the bare infinitive “follow” comes after the modal verb “must.”
赤裸裸的不定式在它们面前没有”to”这个词。通常,你会看到它们与模态动词一起使用。例如,在句子中,”你必须遵循社会疏远规则”,裸露的不定式”跟随”出现在模态动词”必须”之后。

Well, that’s our program for today. Listen or watch for infinitive verbs wherever English is used. And, for fun, you can ask yourself if the word is being used as a noun, adverb or adjective, or if it is a bare infinitive.
嗯,这是今天我们的计划。无论使用英语,只要使用英语,都要听或看不定式动词。而且,为了好玩,你可以问自己这个词是否被用作名词、副词或形容词,或者它是一个赤裸裸的不定式。

I’m Alice Bryant.
我是爱丽丝·布莱恩特

Alice Bryant wrote this story for Learning English. Mario Ritter, Jr. was the editor.
爱丽丝·布莱恩特为学习英语写这个故事。小马里奥·里特是编辑
________________________________________________________________

Words in This Story
这个故事中的单词

journey –n. traveling from one place to another; a trip
旅程 n.从一个地方旅行到另一个地方;旅行

phrase -–n. a group of two or more words that express a single idea but are not a complete sentence
短语-n.一组两个或两个多字,表达一个想法,但不是一个完整的句子

focus –v. to cause you attention to be directed at something
焦点=v.引起你的注意力被指向某件事

screw –n. a small, pointed metal device used to hold two materials, such as wood or metal, together
螺钉n.用于将两种材料(如木材或金属)放在一起的小型尖金属装置

formal –adj. used in serious or official speech and writing
正式的用于严肃或官方言论和写作

literature –n. written works such as plays, poems, and books
文献n.戏剧、诗歌和书籍等书面作品

modal –adj. a verb usually used with another verb to express an idea of possibility, necessity or permission

模式 =adj.通常用另一个动词来表达可能性、必要性或许可的想法的动词

以上是爱英语网【www.iEnglishcn.com】小编整理的英语动词不定式的用法!希望对你有帮助,喜欢的话,欢迎点赞和分享哦~

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