2021 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D
on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Fluid intelligence is the type of intelligence that has to do with short-term memory and the
ability to think quickly, logically, and abstractly in order to solve new problems. It 1 in
young adulthood, levels out for a period of time, and then 2 starts to slowly decline as we
age. But 3 aging is inevitable, scientists are finding that certain changes in brain function may
not be.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
One study found that muscle loss and the 4 of body fat around the abdomen are
associated with a decline in fluid intelligence. This suggests the 5 that lifestyle factors might
help prevent or 6 this type of decline. The researchers looked at data that 7 measurements of lean muscle and abdominal fat
from more than 4,000 middle-to-older-aged men and women and 8 that data to reported
changes in fluid intelligence over a six-year period. They found that middle-aged people 9
higher measures of abdominal fat 10 worse on measures of fluid intelligence as the years
11 . For women, the association may be 12 to changes in immunity that resulted from excess
abdominal fat; in men, the immune system did not appear to be 13 . It is hoped that future
studies could 14 these differences and perhaps lead to different 15 for men and women.
16 there are steps you can 17 to help reduce abdominal fat and maintain lean muscle
mass as you age in order to protect both your physical and mental 18 . The two highly
recommended lifestyle approaches are maintaining or increasing your 19 of aerobic exercise
and following Mediterranean-style 20 that is high in fiber and eliminates highly processed
1. A. pauses B. return C. peaks D. fades
2. A. alternatively B. formally C. accidentally D. generally
3. A. while B. since C. once D. until
4. A. detection B. accumulation C. consumption D. separation
5. A. possibility B. decision C. goal D. requirement
6. A. delay B. ensure C. seek D. utilize
7. A. modify B. supported C. included D. predicted
8. A. devoted B. compared C. converted D. applied
9. A. with B. above C. by D. against
10. A. lived B. managed C. scored D. played
11. A. ran out B. set off C. drew in D. went by
12. A. superior B. attributable C. parallel D. resistant
13. A. restored B. isolated C. involved D. controlled
14. A. alter B. spread C. remove D. explain
15. A. compensations B. symptoms C. demands D. treatments
16. A. Likewise B. Meanwhile C. Therefore D. Instead
17. A. change B. watch C. count D. take
18. A. well-being B. process C. formation D. coordination
19. A. level B. love C. knowledge D. space
20. A. design B. routine C. diet D. prescription
Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D.
Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Text 1
How can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? It
has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every January the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get
to work or otherwise. This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last
year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation. Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of
investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the
general taxpayer. Why, the argument goes, should a car-driving pensioner from Lincolnshire have
to subsidise the daily commute of a stockbroker from Surrey? Equally, there is a sense that the
travails of commuters in the South East, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have
received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure
of the Midlands and the North.
However, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst
rail strikes in years. It is all very well train operators trumpeting the improvements they are
making to the network, but passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the
substantial sums they are now paying to travel. The responsibility for the latest wave of strikes
rests on the unions. However, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by
industrial action should receive compensation for the disruption they have suffered. The Government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement
so that, even when strikes occur, services can continue to operate. This should form part of a wider
package of measures to address the long-running problems on Britain’s railways. Yes, more
investment is needed, but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also
endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or
planned maintenance is managed incompetently. www.ienglishcn.com.The threat of nationalisation may have been seen
off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed
in short order.
21. The author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares
A. will ease train operation’s burden. B. has kept pace with inflation. C. is a big surprise to commuters.
D. remains an unreasonable measure. 22. The stockbroker in 2 is used to stand for
A. car drivers
B. rail travellers
C. local investors
D. ordinary taxpayers
23. It is indicated in 3 that train operators
A. are offering compensations to commuters. B. are trying to repair relations with the unions.
C. have failed to provide an adequate service. D. have suffered huge losses owing to the strikes. 24. If unable to calm down passengers, the railways may have to face
A. the loss of investment. B. the collapse of operations. C. a reduction of revenue.
D. a change of ownership. 25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
A. Who Are to Blame for the Strikes?
B. Constant Complaining Doesn’t Work
C. Can Nationalization Bring Hope?
D. Ever-rising Fares Aren’t Sustainable
Text 2
Last year marked the third year in a row of that Indonesia’s bleak rate of deforestation has
slowed in pace. One reason for the turnaround may be the country’s antipoverty program. In 2007, Indonesia started phasing in a program that gives money to its poorest residents
under certain conditions, such as requiring people to keep kids in school or get regular medical
care. Called conditional cash transfers or CCTs, these social assistance programs are designed to
reduce inequality and break the cycle of poverty. They’re already used in dozens of countries
worldwide. In Indonesia, the program has provided enough food and medicine to substantially
reduce severe growth problems among children.
But CCT programs don’t generally consider effects on the environment. In fact, poverty
alleviation and environmental protection are often viewed as conflicting goals, says Paul Ferraro,
an economist at Johns Hopkins University. That’s because economic growth can be correlated with environmental degradation, while
protecting the environment is sometimes correlated with greater poverty. However, those
correlations don’t prove cause and effect. The only previous study analyzing causality, based on
an area in Mexico that had instituted CCTs, supported the traditional view. There, as people got
more money, some of them may have more cleared land for cattle to raise for meat, Ferraro says. Such programs do not have to negatively affect the environment, though. Ferraro wanted to
see if Indonesia’s poverty-alleviation program was affecting deforestation. Indonesia has the
third-largest area of tropical forest in the world and one of the highest deforestation rates. Ferraro analyzed satellite data showing annual forest loss from 2008 to 2012 — including
during Indonesia’s phase — in of the antipoverty program — in 7,468 forested villages across 15
provinces and multiple islands. The duo separated the effects of the CCT program on forest loss
from other factors, like weather and macroeconomic changes, which were also affecting forest
loss. With that, “we see that the program is associated with a 30 percent reduction in deforestation,” Ferraro says. That’s likely because the rural poor are using the money as makeshift insurance policies
against inclement weather, Ferraro says. Typically, if rains are delayed, people may clear land to
plant more rice to supplement their harvests. With the CCTs, individuals instead can use the
money to supplement their harvests. Whether this research translates elsewhere is anybody’s guess. Ferraro suggests the
importance of growing rice and market access. And regardless of transferability, the study shows
that what’s good for people may also be good for the value of the avoided deforestation just for
carbon dioxide emissions alone is more than the program costs. 26. According to the first two paragraphs, CCT programs aim to
A. facilitate health care reform.
B. help poor families get better off. C. improve local education systems. D. lower deforestation rates.
27. The study based on an area in Mexico is cited to show that
A. cattle rearing has been a major means of livelihood for the poor.
B. CCT programs have helped preserve traditional lifestyles.
C. antipoverty efforts require the participation of local farmers. D. economic growth tends to cause environmental degradation. 28. In his study about Indonesia, Ferraro intends to find out
A. its acceptance level of CCTs. B. its annual rate of poverty alleviation. C. the relation of CCTs to its forest loss.
D. the role of its forests in climate change. 29. According to Ferraro, the CCT program in Indonesia is most valuable in that
A. it will benefit other Asian countries. B. it will reduce regional inequality. C. it can protect the environment.
D. it can boost grain production.
30. What is the text centered on?
A. The effects of a program.
B. The debates over a program. C. The process of a study. D. The transferability of a study.
Text 3
As a historian who’s always searching for the text or the image that makes us re-evaluate the
past, I’ve become preoccupied with looking for photographs that show our Victorian ancestors
smiling (what better way to shatter the image of 19th-century prudery?). I’ve found quite a few, and — since I started posting them on Twitter — they have been causing quite a stir. People have
been surprised to see evidence that Victorians had fun and could, and did, laugh. They are noting
that the Victorians suddenly seem to become more human as the hundred-or-so years that separate
us fade away through our common experience of laughter. Of course, I need to concede that my collection of ‘Smiling Victorians’ makes up only a tiny
percentage of the vast catalogue of photographic portraiture created between 1840 and 1900, the
majority of which show sitters posing miserably and stiffly in front of painted backdrops, or
staring absently into the middle distance. How do we explain this trend?
During the 1840s and 1850s, in the early days of photography, exposure times were
notoriously long: the daguerreotype photographic method (producing an image on a silvered
copper plate) could take several minutes to complete, resulting in blurred images as sitters shifted
position or adjusted their limbs. The thought of holding a fixed grin as the camera performed its
magical duties was too much to contemplate, and so a non-committal blank stare became the
norm.But exposure times were much quicker by the 1880s, and the introduction of the Box
Brownie and other portable cameras meant that, though slow by today’s digital standards, the
exposure was almost instantaneous. www.ienglishcn.com.Spontaneous smiles were relatively easy to capture by the
1890s, so we must look elsewhere for an explanation of why Victorians still hesitated to smile.
One explanation might be the loss of dignity displayed through a cheesy grin. “Nature gave
us lips to conceal our teeth,” ran one popular Victorian saying, alluding to the fact that before the
birth of proper dentistry, mouths were often in a shocking state of hygiene. A flashing set of
healthy and clean, regular ‘pearly whites’ was a rare sight in Victorian society, the preserve of the
super-rich (and even then, dental hygiene was not guaranteed). A toothy grin (especially when there were gaps or blackened teeth) lacked class: drunks,
tramps, and music hall performers might gurn and grin with a smile as wide as Lewis Carroll’s
gum-exposing Cheshire Cat, but it was not a becoming look for properly bred persons. Even Mark
Twain, a man who enjoyed a hearty laugh, said that when it came to photographic portraits there
could be “nothing more damning than a silly, foolish smile fixed forever”. 31. According to Paragraph 1, the author’s posts on Twitter
A. changed people’s impression of the Victorians. B. highlighted social media’s role in Victorian studies. C. re-evaluated the Victorians’ notion of public image. D. illustrated the development of Victorian photography.
32. What does author say about the Victorian portraits he has collected?
A. They are in popular use among historians. B. They are rare among photographs of that age. C. They mirror 19th-century social conventions. D. They show effects of different exposure times.
33. What might have kept the Victorians from smiling for pictures in the 1890s?
A. Their inherent social sensitiveness. B. Their tension before the camera. C. Their distrust of new inventions.
D. Their unhealthy dental condition. 34. Mark Twain is quoted to show that the disapproval of smiles in pictures was
A. a deep-root belief.
B. a misguided attitude. C. a controversial view. D. a thought-provoking idea.
35. Which of the following questions does the text answer?
A. Why did most Victorians look stern in photographs?
B. Why did the Victorians start to view photographs?
C. What made photography develop slowly in the Victorian period?
D. How did smiling in photographs become a post-Victorian norm?
Text 4
From the early days of broadband, advocates for consumers and web-based companies
worried that the cable and phone companies selling broadband connections had the power and
incentive to favor affiliated websites over their rivals. That’s why there has been such a strong
demand for rules that would prevent broadband providers from picking winners and losers online,
preserving the freedom and innovation that have been the lifeblood of the internet.
Yet that demand has been almost impossible to fill — in part because of pushback from
broadband providers, anti-regulatory conservatives and the courts. A federal appeals court
weighed in again Tuesday, but instead of providing a badly needed resolution, it only prolonged
the fight. At issue before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit was the
latest take of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on net neutrality, adopted on a
party-line vote in 2017. The Republican-penned order not only eliminated the strict net neutrality
rules the FCC had adopted when it had a Democratic majority in 2015, but rejected the
commission’s authority to require broadband providers to do much of anything. The order also
declared that state and local governments couldn’t regulate broadband providers either.
The commission argued that other agencies would protect against anti-competitive behavior, such as a broadband-providing conglomerate like AT&T favoring its own video-streaming service
at the expense of Netflix and Apple TV. Yet the FCC also ended the investigations of broadband
providers that imposed data caps on their rivals’ streaming services but not their own. On Tuesday, the appeals court unanimously upheld the 2017 order deregulating broadband
providers, citing a Supreme Court ruling from 2005 that upheld a similarly deregulatory move. But Judge Patricia Millett rightly argued in a concurring opinion that “the result is unhinged from
the realities of modern broadband service,” and said Congress or the Supreme Court could
intervene to “avoid trapping Internet regulation in technological anachronism.”
In the meantime, the court threw out the FCC’s attempt to block all state rules on net
neutrality, while preserving the commission’s power to preempt individual state laws that
undermine its order. That means more battles like the one now going on between the Justice
Department and California, which enacted a tough net neutrality law in the wake of the FCC’s
abdication. The endless legal battles and back-and-forth at the FCC cry out for Congress to act. It needs
to give the commission explicit authority once and for all to bar broadband providers from
meddling in the traffic on their network and to create clear rules protecting openness and
innovation online.
36. There has long been concern that broadband provides would
A. bring web-based firms under control. B. slow down the traffic on their network. C. show partiality in treating clients.
D. intensify competition with their rivals. 37. Faced with the demand for net neutrality rules, the Fcc
A. Sticks to an out-of-date order.
B. Takes an anti-regulatory stance. C. Has issued a special resolution. D. Has allowed the states to intervene.
38. What can be learned about AT&T from Paragraph 3?
A. It protects against unfair competition. B. It engages in anti-competitive practices.
C. It is under the FCC’s investigation. D. It is in pursuit of quality service. 39. Judge Patricia Millett argues that the appeals court’s decision
A. focuses on trivialities. B. conveys an ambiguous message. C. is at odds with its earlier rulings.
D. is out of touch with reality.
40. What does the author argue in the last paragraph?
A. Congress needs to take action to ensure net neutrality.
B. The FCC should be put under strict supervision. C. Rules need to be set to diversify online services. D. Broadband providers’ rights should be protected.
Part B:
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the
most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra
choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10
In the movies and on television, artificial intelligence is typically depicted as something
sinister that will upend our way of life. When it comes to AI in business, we often hear about it in
relation to automation and the impending loss of jobs, but in what ways is AI changing companies
and the larger economy that don’t involve doom-and-gloom mass unemployment predictions?
A recent survey of manufacturing and service industries from Tata Consultancy Services
found that companies currently use AI more often in computer-to-computer activities than in
automating human activities. One common application? Preventing electronic security breaches, which, rather than eliminating IT jobs, actually makes those personnel more valuable to employers, because they help firms prevent hacking attempts.
Here are a few other ways AI is aiding companies without replacing employees:
Better hiring practices
Companies are using artificial intelligence to remove some of the unconscious bias from
hiring decisions. “There are experiments that show that, naturally, the results of interviews are
much more biased than what AI does,” says Pédro Domingos, author of The Master Algorithm:
How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World and a computer
science 41_____________ One company that’s doing this is called Blendoor. It uses analytics to
help identify where there may be bias in the hiring process. More effective marketing
Some AI software can analyze and optimize marketing email subject lines to increase open
rates. One company in the UK, Phrasee, claims their software can outperform humans by up to 10
percent when it comes to email open rates. This can mean millions more in revenue. 42_________These are “tools that help people use data, not a replacement for people,” says
Patrick H. Winston, a professor of artificial intelligence and computer science at MIT. Saving customers money
Energy companies can use AI to help customers reduce their electricity bills, saving them
money while helping the environment. Companies can also optimize their own energy use and cut
down on the cost of electricity. Insurance companies, meanwhile, can base their premiums on AI
models that more accurately access risk. “Before, they might not insure the ones who felt like a
high risk or charge them too much,” says Domingos, 43____________
Improved accuracy
“Machine learning often provides a more reliable form of statistics, which makes data more
valuable,” says Winston. It “helps people make smarter decisions.” 44___________ Protecting and maintaining infrastructure
A number of companies, particularly in energy and transportation, use AI image processing
technology to inspect infrastructure and prevent equipment failure or leaks before they happen. “If
they fail first and then you fix them, it’s very expensive,” says Domingos. 45_______
[A] I replaces the boring parts of your job. If you’re doing research, you can have AI go out and
look for relevant sources and information that otherwise you just wouldn’t have time for. [B] One accounting firm, EY, uses an AI system that helps review contracts during an audit. This
process, along with employees reviewing the contracts, is faster and more accurate. [C] There are also companies like Acquisio, which analyzes advertising performance across
multiple channels like Adwords, www.ienglishcn.com.Bing and social media and makes adjustments or suggestions
about where advertising funds will yield best results. [D] You want to predict if something needs attention now and point to where it’s useful for
employees to go to. [E] Before, they might not insure the ones who felt like a high risk or charge them too much, or
they would charge them too little and then it would cost [the company] money. [F] We’re also giving our customers better channels versus picking up the phone to accomplish
something beyond human scale. [G] AI looks at résumés in greater numbers than humans would be able to, and selects the more
promising candidates. 参考答案:41-45 :GCEBD
Part C
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Write
your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
World War Ⅱ was the watershed event for higher education in modern Western societies. (46)Those societies came out of the war with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant
at 3-5% of the relevant age groups during the decades before the war. But after the war, great
social and political changes arising out of the successful war against Fascism created a growing
demand in European and American economies for increasing numbers of graduates with more
than a secondary school education. (47) And the demand that rose in those societies for entry to
higher education extended to groups and social classes that had not thought of attending a
university before the war. These demands resulted in a very rapid expansion of the systems of
higher education, beginning in the 1960s and developing very rapidly (though unevenly) during
the 1970s and 1980s. The growth of higher education manifests itself in at least three quite different ways, and these in
turn have given rise to different sets of problems. There was first the rate of growth: (48) in many
counties of Western Europe, the numbers of students in higher education doubled within five-year
periods during the 1960s and doubled again in seven, eight, or 10 years by the middle of the 1970s. Second, growth obviously affected the absolute size both of systems and individual institutions.
And third, growth was reflected in changes in the proportion of the relevant age group enrolled in
institutions of higher education. Each of these manifestations of growth carried its own peculiar problems in its wake. For example,
a high growth rate placed great strains on the existing structures of governance, of administration, and above all of socialization. When a faculty or department grows from, say, five to 20 members
within three or four years, (49) and when the new staff predominantly young men and women
fresh from postgraduate study, they largely define the norms of academic life in that faculty. And
if the postgraduate student population also grows rapidly and there is loss of a close
apprenticeship relationship between faculty members and students, the student culture becomes
the chief socializing force for new postgraduate students, with consequences for the intellectual
and academic life of the institution—this was seen in America as well as in France, Italy, West
Germany, and Japan. (50)High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation; they
also weakened the forms and processes by which teachers and students are admitted into a
community of scholars during periods of stability or slow growth. In the 1960s and 1970s, European universities saw marked changes in their governance arrangements, with empowerment
of junior faculty and to some degree of students as well. 参考译文:
46. 战争结束后,一些社会随之出现了。这些社会的入学率在战前的几十年里一直保持在相
关年龄段的 3%-5%。
those societies came out of the war (1 分)
come out of…由……产生,从……出来,翻译错误扣 1 分
with levels of enrollment that had been roughly constant at 3%-5% of the relevant age groups(0.5
enrollment 入学,登记,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
during the decades before the war(0.5 分)
decades 数十年,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
47. 在那些社会中,人们渴望接受到更高等的教育。这个需求延伸到了战前那些没有想过上
that rose in those societies of entry to higher education(0.5 分)
rose: rise 的过去式“上升”,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
And the demand extend to groups and social classes(1 分)
主干没有译出扣 1 分
that had not thought of attending a university before the war(0.5 分)
attend 上大学,译错扣 0.5 分
48. 在西欧的许多国家,20 世纪 60 年代,接受高等教育的学生人数在五年内翻了一番,到
70 年代中期,在七年,八年或十年里又翻了一番。
In many countries of Western Europe . the numbers of student in higher education
doubled (1 分)
double 做动词,“翻倍”,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
within five-years periods during the 1960s (0.5 分)
and double again in seven eight or 10 years by the middle of 1970s(0.5 分). 并列谓语动词翻译错误扣 0.5 分
49. 当新员工主要是刚毕业的年轻男女时,他们很大程度上定义了该学院学术生活的规范。
and when the new staff are predominantly young men and women(0.5 分)
Predominantly 主要地,以…为主,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
fresh from post graduate study(0.5 分)
fresh 新进的,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
they largely define the norms(0.5 分)
norms 标准,规范,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
of academic life in that faculty(0.5 分)
faculty 学院,系,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
50. 高增长率增加了学术创新的机会,同时也削弱了教师和学生在稳定或缓慢的成长过程中,
High growth rates increased the chances for academic innovation(0.5 分)
Academic innovation 学术创新,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
they also weakened the forms and process(0.5)
weakened 削弱,减少,翻译错误扣 0.5 分
by which teachers and students are admitted into a community of scholars(0.5 分)
admit 承认,认可,翻译错误扣除 0.5 分
during periods of stability of slow growth(0.5 分). Section III Writing
Part A
51. Directions:
A foreign friend of yours has recently graduated from college and intends to find a job in

China. Write him/her an email to make some suggestions. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

Dear Friend, Hope this letter finds you well. I am glad to hear you intend to find a job in China, so I would
like to extend my warmest welcome as well as provide you with a few suggestions on job-hunting.
First, you can start from listing 3 to 5 cities which you would like to work or live in. To be
more specific, rate them by location, working opportunities and prospects, and , of course, the
city’s happiness level. What’s more, be prepared for the culture shock. There is a sharp contrast in
how eastern people and western people work. The former prefers working individually while the
latter is prone to teamwork. There is one more point that, I suppose, I have to touch on: make good
use of online job-hunting applications, such as BOSS and 51Job.
I hope you will find my humble suggestions be of help. I am looking forward to your reply. Best wishes.
Yours, Li Ming
Part B
52. Directions:
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the pictures below. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly, 2) explain the intended meaning, and then
3) give your comments.
Write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)


What is graphically and explicitly depicted in the simple yet eye-catching drawing is that on
the ground stands a father, who is having a talk with his son. Impressively, at second glance, it is
not difficult to observe that the boy, dressed in a traditional Chinese costume, expresses his
concern about studying drama, while his father offers some words of encouragement. Without a doubt,no boy who was born and raised in China could be ignorant that China is an
ancient nation with a long history and splendid traditional culture. Traditional dramas, like Peking
opera, are the national essence of our culture, which are not only part of the national heritage, but
also part of a living and continuing culture. However, traditional culture has been subject to the
impact and damage caused by network culture. It is a not uncommon occurrence that quite a few
people show too little enthusiasm for traditional dramas. Instead, they are more than willing to
follow the popular culture. While popular culture is completely transforming people’s thoughts and ways of thinking, we
are supposed to cherish the roots of national culture and build cultural confidence. Accordingly, it
is my view that national culture should be preserved and cherished as priceless spiritual treasure.


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