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2012年考研英语一真题及答案及解析

2012年考研英语一真题及答案及解析: 2012年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题 Section I  Use of English Directions: R…

2012年考研英语一真题及答案及解析:

2012年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题

Section I  Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or Don ANSWER SHEET 1. (lOpoints) The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices have become an important issue recently. The court cannot 1 its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law 2 justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that 3 the court’s reputation for being independent and impartial. Justice Antonin Scalia, for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makes it  less likely that the  court’s decisions will be 4 as  impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not 5 by an ethics code. At  the very least, the court should make itself 6 to  the code of  conduct that_7_  to the rest of the federal judiciary. This and other similar cases 8 the  question of  whether there 1s  still a _9_  between the court and politics. The framers of the  Constitution envisioned law 10 having authority apart from politics. They gave justices permanent positions 11 they would be free to ___lL those in power and have no need to 13 political support. Our legal system was designed to  set  law  apart from politics precisely because they are  so closely _H__. Constitutional law is  political because it  results from choices rooted in fundamental social 15 like  liberty and  property. When the court deals with social policy decisions, the  law  it  16 is  inescapably  political which is  why decisions split along ideological lines are so easily 17 as unjust. The justices must 18 doubts about the court’s legitimacy by  making themselves 19 to the code of conduct. That would make rulings more likely to be seen as separate from politics and, 20 , convincing as law . 

1. [A] emphasize [B] maintain[C] modify[D] recognize
2. [A] when [B] lest[C] before[D] unless
3. [A] restored [B] weakened[C] established[D] eliminated
4. [A] challenged [B] compromised[ C] suspected[D] accepted
5. [A] advanced [B] caught[C] bound[D] founded
6. [A] resistant [B] subject[C] immune[D] prone
7. [A] resorts  [B] sticks[C] leads[D] applies
8. [A] evade [B] raise[C] deny[D] settle
9. [A] line [B] barrier[C] similarity[D] conflict
10. [A] by [B] as[C] through[D] towards
11. [A] so [B] since[C] provided[D] though
12. [A] serve [B] satisfy[C] upset[D] replace
13. [A] confirm [B] express[C] cultivate[D] offer
14. [A] guarded [B] followed[C] studied[D] tied
15. [A] concepts [B] theories[C] divisions[D] conventions
16. [A] excludes [B] questions[C] shapes[D] controls
17. [A] dismissed  [B] released[C] ranked[D] distorted
18. [A] suppress [B] exploit[C] address[D] ignore
19. [A] accessible [B] amiable[C] agreeable[D] accountable
20. [A] by all means [B] at all costs[C] in a word[D] as a result

Section II Reading Comprehension 
Part A 
Directions: 
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) 

Text 1 
Come on Everybody’s doing it.  That whispered message, half invitation and half forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually leads to no good drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the  Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that  peer pressure can  also be a positive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to  help individuals improve their lives and possibly the world. Rosenberg, the  recipient of a  Pulitzer Prize, offers a  host of examples of the social cure in  action: In  South Carolina, a  state-sponsored antismoking  program called Rage Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, an HIV-prevention initiative known as loveLife recruits young people to promote safe sex among their peers. www.ienglishcn.comThe idea seems promising, and Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of the  lameness of many public-health campaigns is  spot-on: they fail  to mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a  seriously flawed understanding of psychology. “Dare to be different, please don’t smoke!” pleads one billboard campaign aimed at  reducing smoking among teenagers teenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure. But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of the  social and biological factors that make peer pressure so  powerful. The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it’s presented here is that it doesn’t work very well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the loveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed. There’s no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging body of research shows that positive health habits as well as negative ones spread through networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day. Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their activities in  virtuous directions. It’s like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-behaved classmates. The tactic never really works. And that’s the problem with a social cure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our own friends. 

21. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as[A] a supplement to the social cure.[B] a stimulus to group dynamics.[C] an obstacle to social progress.[D] a cause of undesirable behaviors.
22. Rosenberg holds that public-health advocates should[A] recruit professional advertisers.[B] learn from advertisers’ experience.[C] stay away from commercial advertisers.[D] recognize the limitations of advertisements.
23. In the author’s view, Rosenberg’s book fails to[A] adequately probe social and biological factors.[B] effectively evade the flaws of the social cure.[C] illustrate the functions of state funding.[D] produce a long-lasting social effect.
24. Paragraph 5 shows that our imitation of behaviors[A] is harmful to our networks of friends.[B] will mislead behavioral studies.[C] occurs without our realizing it.[D] can produce negative health habits.
25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is[A] harmful.[B] desirable.[C] profound.[D] questionable.

Text2 
A deal is a deal except, apparently, when Entergy is involved. The company, a major energy supplier in New England, provoked justified outrage in  Vermont last week when it announced it was reneging on a longstanding commitment to abide by the state’s strict nuclear regulations. Instead, the company has done precisely what it had long promised it would not: challenge the constitutionality of Vermont’s rules in  the  federal court, as  part of a desperate effort to  keep its  Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant running. It’s  a stunning move. The conflict has been surfacing since 2002, when the  corporation bought Vermont’s only nuclear power plant, an aging reactor in Vernon. As  a condition of receiving state approval for  the  sale, the  company agreed to  seek permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. In 2006, the state went a step further, requiring that any extension of  the  plant’s license be  subject to  the  Vermont legislature’s approval. Then, too, the company went along. Either Entergy never really intended to live by those commitments, or it simply didn’t foresee what would happen next. A  string of accidents, including the partial collapse of a cooling tower in 2007 and the discovery of an underground pipe system leakage, raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee’ s safety and Entergy’ s management especially after the  company made misleading statements about the pipe. Enraged by  Entergy’s behavior, the  Vermont Senate voted 26  to 4  last  year against allowing an extension. Now the  company is  suddenly claiming that the  2002 agreement is  invalid because of the 2006 legislation, and that only the federal government has regulatory power over nuclear issues. The legal issues in  the  case are  obscure: whereas the Supreme Court has ruled that states do have some regulatory authority over nuclear power, legal scholars say that Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far  those powers extend. Certainly, there are  valid concerns about the  patchwork regulations that could result if every state sets its own rules. But had Entergy kept its word, that debate would be beside the point. The company seems to have concluded that its reputation in Vermont is already so damaged that it has nothing left to lose by going to war with the state. But there should be consequences. Permission to run a nuclear plant is a public trust. Entergy runs 11  other reactors in  the  United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth. Pledging to  run  Pilgrim safely, the  company has  applied for  federal permission to  keep it  open for  another 20  years. But as  the  Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the company’s application, it should keep in mind what promises from Entergy are worth. 

26. The phrase “reneging on” (Line 3, Para. 1) is closest in meaning to[A] condemning.[B] reaffirming.[C] dishonoring.[D] securing.
27. By entering into the 2002 agreement, Entergy intended to [A] obtain protection from Vermont regulators.[B] seek favor from the federal legislature.[C] acquire an extension of its business license.[D] get permission to purchase a power plant.
28. According to Paragraph 4, Entergy seems to have problems with its[A] managerial practices.[B] technical innovativeness.[C] financial goals.[D] business vision.
29. In the author’s view, the Vermont case will test[A] Entergy’ s capacity to fulfill all its promises.[B] the nature of states’ patchwork regulations.[C] the federal authority over nuclear issues.[D] the limits of states’ power over nuclear issues.
30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that[A] Entergy’ s business elsewhere might be affected.[B] the authority of the NRC will be defied.[C] Entergy will withdraw its Plymouth application.[D] Vermont’s reputation might be damaged .

Text3 
In the idealized version of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to be observed and collected by objective researchers who use the scientific method to carry out their work. But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route. We aim to be objective, but we cannot escape the  context of our  unique life  experiences. Prior knowledge and interests influence what we  experience, what we  think our experiences mean, and the subsequent actions we  take. Opportunities for  misinterpretation, error, and self­deception abound. Consequently, discovery claims should be thought of as protoscience. Similar to newly staked mining claims, they are full of potential. But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to transform a discovery claim into a  mature discovery. This is the credibility process, through which the individual researcher’s me, here, now becomes the community’s anyone, anywhere, anytime. Objective knowledge is the goal, not the starting point. Once a  discovery claim becomes public, the  discoverer receives intellectual credit. But, unlike with mining claims, the community takes control of what happens next. Within the  complex social structure of the  scientific community, researchers make discoveries; editors and reviewers act  as  gatekeepers by  controlling the publication process; other scientists use the new finding to suit their own purposes; and  finally, the  public (including other scientists) receives the  new discovery and possibly accompanying technology. As a discovery claim works its way through the community, the interaction and confrontation between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved transforms an individual’s discovery claim into the community’s credible discovery. Two paradoxes exist throughout this  credibility process. First, scientific work tends to focus on some aspect of prevailing knowledge that is viewed as incomplete or  incorrect. Little reward accompanies duplication and confirmation of  what is already known and believed. The goal is new-search, not re-search. Not surprisingly, newly published discovery claims and credible discoveries that appear to  be important and convincing will always be open to challenge and potential modification or  refutation by  future researchers. Second, novelty itself frequently provokes disbelief. Nobel Laureate and physiologist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi once described discovery as  “seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.” But  thinking what nobody else has  thought and  telling others what they have missed may not  change their views. Sometimes years are  required for truly novel discovery claims to be accepted and appreciated. In  the  end, credibility “happens” to  a  discovery claim a  process that corresponds to what philosopher Annette Baier has described as the commons of the mind. “We reason together, challenge, revise, and  complete each other’s reasoning and each other’s conceptions ofreason.” 

31. According to the first paragraph, the process of discovery is characterized by its[A] uncertainty and complexity.[B] misconception and deceptiveness.[C] logicality and objectivity.[D] systematicness and regularity.
32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires[A] strict inspection.[B] shared efforts.[C] individual wisdom.[D] persistent innovation.
33. Paragraph 3 shows that a discovery claim becomes credible after it[A] has attracted the attention of the general public.[B] has been examined by the scientific community.[C] has received recognition from editors and reviewers.[D] has been frequently quoted by peer scientists.
34. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi would most likely agree that[A] scientific claims will survive challenges.[B] discoveries today inspire future research.[C] efforts to make discoveries are justified.[D] scientific work calls for a critical mind.
35. Which of the following would be the best title of the text?[A] Novelty as an Engine of Scientific Development.[B] Collective Scrutiny in Scientific Discovery.[C] Evolution of Credibility in Doing Science.[D] Challenge to Credibility at the Gate to Science .

Text4 
If the trade unionist Jimmy Hoffa were alive today, he would probably represent civil servants. When Hoffa’s Teamsters were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workers belonged to  a  union; now 36% do.  In  2009 the number of unionists in America’s public sector passed that of their fellow members in the private sector. In Britain, more than half of public-sector workers but only about 15% of private-sector ones are unionized. There are three reasons for the public-sector unions’ thriving. First, they can shut things down without suffering much in  the way of consequences.  Second, they are mostly bright and well-educated. A quarter of America’s public-sector workers have a university degree. Third, they now dominate left-of-centre politics. Some of their ties go  back a  long way. Britain’s Labor Party, as  its  name implies, has  long been associated with trade unionism. Its current leader, Ed Miliband, owes his position to votes from public-sector unions. At the state level their influence can be even more fearsome. Mark Baldassare of the Public Policy Institute of California points out that much of the state’s budget is patrolled by  unions. The teachers’ unions keep an  eye  on  schools, the  CCPOA on prisons and a variety of labor groups on health care. In many rich countries average wages in the state sector are higher than in the private one. But the real gains come in benefits and work practices. Politicians have repeatedly “backloaded” public-sector pay  deals, keeping the  pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are already generous. Reform has  been vigorously opposed, perhaps most notoriously in  education, where charter schools, academies and  merit pay  all  faced drawn-out battles. Even though there is  plenty of  evidence that the  quality of  the  teachers is  the  most important variable, teachers’ unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones and promoting good ones. As the cost to everyone else has become clearer, politicians have begun to clamp down. In  Wisconsin the  unions have rallied thousands of supporters against Scott Walker, the hardline Republican governor. But many within the public sector suffer under the current system, too. John Donahue at Harvard’s Kennedy School points out that the norms of culture in Western civil services suit those who want to stay put but is bad for high achievers. The only American public-sector workers who earn well above $250,000 a year are university sports coaches and  the  president of the  United States. Bankers’ fat  pay packets have attracted much criticism, but a public-sector system that does not reward high achievers may be a much bigger problem for America . 

36. It can be learned from the first paragraph that[A] Teamsters still have a large body of members.[B] Jimmy Hoffa used to work as a civil servant.[C] unions have enlarged their public-sector membership.[D] the government has improved its relationship with unionists.www.ienglishcn.com
37. Which of the following is true of Paragraph 2? [A] Public-sector unions are prudent in taking actions.[B] Education is required for public-sector union membership.[C] Labor Party has long been fighting against public-sector unions.[D] Public-sector unions seldom get in trouble for their actions.
38. It can be learned from Paragraph 4 that the income in the state sector is[A] illegally secured.[B] indirectly augmented.[C] excessively increased.[D] fairly adjusted.
39. The example of the unions in Wisconsin shows that unions[A] often run against the current political system.[B] can change people’s political attitudes.[C] may be a barrier to public-sector reforms.[D] are dominant in the government.
40. John Donahue’s attitude towards the public-sector system is one of[A] disapproval.[B] appreciation.[C] tolerance.[D] indifference.

PartB 
Directions: 
In  the  following text, some sentences have been removed. For  Questions 41 45, choose the most suitable one from the list A   G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) 
Think of those fleeting moments when you look out of an aeroplane window and realise that you are flying, higher than a bird. Now think of your laptop, thinner than a brown-paper envelope, or your cellphone in the palm of your hand. Take a moment or two to wonder at those marvels. You are the lucky inheritor of a dream come true. The second half of the  20th century saw a  collection of geniuses, warriors, entrepreneurs and visionaries labour to create a fabulous machine that could function as a typewriter and printing press, studio and theatre, paintbrush and gallery, piano and radio, the mail as well as the mail carrier. ( 41) ______________ _ The networked computer is  an  amazing device, the  first media machine that serves as the mode of production, means of distribution, site of reception, and place of praise and critique. The computer is the 21st century’s culture machine. But for all the reasons there are to celebrate the computer, we must also act with caution. ( 42) _______________ 1 call it  a  secret war for  two reasons. First, most people do not realise that there are strong commercial agendas at work to keep them in passive consumption mode. Second, the majority of people who use networked computers to upload are not even aware of the significance of what they are doing. All  animals download, but  only a  few upload. Beavers build dams and  birds make nests. Yet for  the  most part, the  animal kingdom moves through the  world downloading. Humans are unique in  their capacity to not only make tools but then tum around and use them to create superfluous material goods paintings, sculpture and architecture and superfluous experiences music, literature, religion and philosopy. (43) _________ _For all the possibilities of our new culture machines, most people are still stuckin download mode. Even after the advent of widespread social media, a pyramid of production remains, with a  small number of people uploading material, a  slightly larger group commenting on  or  modifying that content, and a  huge percentage remaining content to just consume. ( 44) ______________ _ Television is a one-way tap flowing into our homes. The hardest task that television asks of anyone is to turn the power off  after he  has turned it on.  ( 45) What counts as  meaningful uploading? My definition revolves around the concept of “stickiness” creations and experiences to which others adhere . 

[A]  Of course, it is precisely these superfluous things that define human culture andultimately what it is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requiresgreat skills, but  failing to  move beyond downloading is  to  strip oneself of adefining constituent of humanity.
[B]  Applications like tumblr.com, which allow users to combine pictures, words and other media in creative ways and then share them, have the potential to add stickiness by amusing, entertaining and enlightening others. 
[C] Not only did  they develop such a  device but  by  the  tum of the  millenniumthey had also managed to embed it in a worldwide system accessed by billionsof people every day.
[D]  This is  because the  networked computer has  sparked a  secret war between downloading and uploading between passive consumption and active creation whose outcome will shape our collective future in  ways we  can only begin to imagine. 
[E]  The challenge the  computer mounts to  television thus bears little similarity to one  format being replaced by  another in  the  manner of record players being replaced by CD players.
 [F] One reason for the persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the past half-century, much of the  world’s media culture has  been defined by  a  single medium television and television is defined by downloading. 
[G]  The networked computer offers the first chance in  50  years to  reverse the  flow,to  encourage thoughtful downloading and, even more importantly, meaningfuluploading.

PartC 
Directions: 
Read the  following text carefully and  then translate the  underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be  written clearly on  ANSWER SHEET 2.  (10 points) 
Since the days of Aristotle, a search for universal principles has characterized the scientific enterprise. In  some ways, this quest for  commonalities defines science. Newton’s laws of motion and Darwinian evolution each bind a  host of different phenomena into a single explicatory framework. ( 46) In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme,and seeks a theory of everything a single generative equation for all we see. It is becoming less clear, however, that such a theory would be a simplification, given the dimensions and universes that it  might entail.  Nonetheless,  unification of  sorts remains a major goal. This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too. (47)  Here, Darwinism seems to  offer justification, for  if  all  humans share common origins, it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to  more constrained beginnings. Just as  the  bewildering variety of human courtship rituals might all  be  considered forms of  sexual selection, perhaps the world’s languages, music, social and religious customs and even history are governed by  universal features. ( 48)  To  filter out  what is  unique from what is  shared might enable us  to understand how complex cultural behavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms. That, at least, is the hope. But a comparative study of linguistic traits published online today supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and his  colleagues consider the  evolution of  grammars in  the  light of  two previous attempts to find universality in language. The most famous of  these efforts was initiated by  Noam Chomsky, who suggested that humans are  born with an  innate language-acquisition capacity that dictates a universal grammar. A few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamental structure of a  language, which is  why children can  learn it  so quickly. ( 49) The second, by  Joshua Greenberg, takes a  more empirical approach touniversality, identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many languages, which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints. Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that  between them represent more than 2,000 languages. (50) Chomsky’s grammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked through it, whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strong co­dependencies between particular types of  word-order relations. Neither of  these patterns is borne out by the analysis, suggesting that the structures of the languages are lineage-specific and not governed by universals . 

Section illWriting 
PartA 
51. Directions:
Some international students are coming to your university. Write them an email inthe name of the Students’Union to 
1) extend your welcome and
2) provide some suggestions for their campus life here.
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.
Do not sign your name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
PartB 
52. Directions:
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essayyou should 
I) describe the drawing briefly
2) explain its intended meaning, and
3) give your comments.
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

2012年考研英语一真题

2012年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题参考答案

Section I: Use of English (10 points) 

1-5: B-A-B-D-C 

6-10:B-D-B-A-B 

11-15: A-C-C-D-A

16-20: C-A-C-D-D

Section II: Reading Comprehension (60 points) 

Part A (40 points) 

21-25: D-B-A-C-D 

26-30: C-D-A-D-A 

31-35: A-B-B-D-C 

36-40: C-D-B-C-A 

Part B (10 points) 

41-45: C-D-A-F-G 

Part C (10 points)

46.物理学中的一个方法,它将这种追求一致的冲动发挥到了极致,试图找到一种万能理论——用一种方程等式来解释一切。

47.对此, 达尔文主义似乎给出了合理的解释,因为如果整个人类起源   相同,那么 认为文化的多样性也可以追溯到更有限的开端也是合理的。

48.如果把特征从共性中剔除,我们或许能够理解复杂文化行为的产生方式以及指导其在进化或认知方面的因素。

49.做出又一贡献的是乔舒亚·格林伯格,他运用一种更具实证性的方法来研究这种普遍性,鉴别出多种语言的共同特征(特别是语序特征),而人们却认为这些特征是由认知制约而产生的偏见的代表。

50.乔姆斯基   的语法应该表明语言变化的模式,这些模式独立于语言谱系或该谱系的生成路径,然而格林伯格的普遍性理论则预示,特定类型的语序关系间存在着强烈的依附性。

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