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2011年考研英语一真题及答案及解析

2011年考研英语一真题及答案及解析: 2011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题 Directions: Section I Use of English Read the f…

2011年考研英语一真题及答案及解析:

2011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题

Directions: Section I Use of English Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or Don ANSWER SHEET 1. (lOpoints) Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as  “a  bodily exercise precious to health.” But 1 some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness. Laughter does 2 short-term changes in the  function of the  heart and  its  blood vessels, 3 heart rate and oxygen consumption. But because hard laughter is  difficult to 4   ,  a good laugh is unlikely to have 5    benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does. 6 instead of straining muscles to  build them, as  exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the_7_ . Studies dating back to  the  1930s indicate that laughter _8_ muscles, decreasing muscle tone for up to 45 minutes after the laugh dies down. Such bodily reaction might conceivably help 9   the effects of psychological stress. Anyway, the act of laughing probably does produce other types of  10 feedback that improve an individual’s emotional state. 11 one classical theory of emotion, our feelings are partially rooted 12 physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry 13 they are sad but they become sad when the tears begin to flow. Although sadness also 14 tears, evidence  suggests that emotions can flow 15 muscular responses. In  an  experiment published m   1988, social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of Wilrzburg in Germany asked volunteers to ___lQ_ a pen either with their teeth thereby creating an artificial smile or with their lips, which would produce a(n) 17 expression. Those forced to exercise their smiling muscles 18 more enthusiastically to funny cartoons than did those whose mouths were contracted in  a  frown, 19 that  expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around. 20 , the  physical act  of  laughter could improve mood. 

1. [A] among [B] except[C] despite[D] like
2. [A] reflect  [B] demand[C] indicate[D] produce
3. [A] stabilizing  [B] boosting[ C] impairing[D] determining
4. [A] transmit  [B] sustain[C] evaluate[D] observe
5. [A] measurable [B] manageable[C] affordable[D] renewable
6. [A] In turn [B] In fact[C] In addition[D] In brief
7. [A] opposite  [B] impossible[C] average[D] expected
8. [A] hardens  [B] weakens[C] tightens[D] relaxes
9. [A] aggravate [B] generate[ C] moderate[D] enhance
10. [A] physical [B] mental[C] subconscious[D] internal
11. [A] Except for [B] According to[C] Due to[D] As for
12. [A] with [B] on[C] in[D] at
13. [A] unless [B] until[C] if[D] because
14. [A] exhausts [B] follows[ C] precedes[D] suppresses
15. [A] into [B] from[C] towards[D] beyond
16. [A] fetch [B] bite[C] pick[D] hold
17. [A] disappointed [B] excited[C] joyful[D] indifferent
18. [A] adapted [B] catered[C] turned[D] reacted
19. [A] suggesting [B] requiring[C] mentioning[D] supposing
20. [A] Eventually  [B] Consequently[C] Similarly[D] Conversely

Section II  Reading Comprehension 
Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) 

Text 1 
The decision of the  New York Philharmonic to  hire Alan Gilbert as  its  next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say  the  least. “Hooray! At  last!” wrote Anthony Tommasini, a  sober­sided classical-music critic. One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is  comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.” www.ienglishcn.comAs a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise. For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is  not  necessary for  me  to  visit A very Fisher Hall, or  anywhere else, to  hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes. Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are  no  substitute for  live performance are  missing the  point. For  the  time, attention, and  money of the  art­loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not  only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the  recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. These recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the  listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of  such recordings has  thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert. One possible response is  for  classical performers to  program attractive new music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert’s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of  turning the  Philharmonic into “a  markedly different, more vibrant organization.” But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra’s  repertoire will not  be  enough. If  Gilbert and  the  Philharmonic are  to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hopes to attract. 

21. We learn from Paragraph 1 that Gilbert’s appointment has
[A] incurred criticism.
[B] raised suspicion.
[C] received acclaim.
[D] aroused curiosity.
22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is
[A] influential.
[B] modest.
[C] respectable.
[D] talented.
23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers
[A] ignore the expenses of live performances.
[B] reject most kinds of recorded performances.
[C] exaggerate the variety oflive performances.
[D] overestimate the value of live performances.
24. According to the text, which of the following is true ofrecordings?
[A] They are often inferior to live concerts in quality.
[B] They are easily accessible to the general public.
[C] They help improve the quality of music.
[D] They have only covered masterpieces.
25. Regarding Gilbert’s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels
[A] doubtful.
[B] enthusiastic.
[C] confident.
[D] puzzled.

Text2 
When Liam McGee departed as  president of Bank of America in  August, his explanation was  surprisingly straight up.  Rather than cloaking his  exit in  the usual vague excuses, he  came right out  and  said he  was leaving “to  pursue my  goal of running a  company.” Broadcasting his  ambition was “very much my  decision,” McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September 29. McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn’t alone. In recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has  senior managers cautious of  letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations. As  the  first signs of recovery begin to  take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders. The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey: “I  can’t think of a  single search I’ve done where a  board has  not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.” Those who jumped without a job haven’t always landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade ago, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later. Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. “The traditional rule was it’s safer to stay where you are,  but that’s been fundamentally inverted,” says one headhunter. “The people who’ve been hurt the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.” 

26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as being[A] arrogant.[B] frank.[C] self-centered.[D] impulsive.
27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives’ quitting may be spurred by[A] their expectation of better financial status.[B] their need to reflect on their private life.[C] their strained relations with the boards.[D] their pursuit of new career goals.
28. The word “poached” (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means[A] approved of.[B] attended to.[C] hunted for.[D] guarded against.
29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that[A] top performers used to cling to their posts.[B] loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated.[C] top performers care more about reputations.[D] it’s safer to stick to the traditional rules.
30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?[A] CEOs: Where to Go?[B] CEOs: All the Way Up?[C] Top Managers Jump without a Net[D] The Only Way Out for Top Performers

Text3 
The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media such as television commercials and print advertisements still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create “earned” media by willingly promoting it to  friends, and a  company may leverage “owned” media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the  process of making purchase decisions means that marketing’s impact stems from a  broad range of  factors beyond conventional paid media. Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media, such marketers act as the initiator for users’ responses. But in some cases, one  marketer’s owned media become another marketer’s paid media for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-commerce engines within that environment. This trend, which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and  even competitive products. Besides generating income, the  presence of other marketers makes the  site  seem objective, gives companies opportunities to  learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies’ marketing, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned. The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk  that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in  quicker, more visible, and  much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or  campaign becomes hostage to  consumers, other stakeholders, or  activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure on the businesses that originally created them. If that  happens, passionate consumers would try  to  persuade others to boycott products, putting the  reputation of the  target company at  risk. In  such a  case, the company’s response may not  be  sufficiently quick or  thoughtful, and  the  learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social­media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg . 

31. Consumers may create “earned” media when they are[A] obsessed with online shopping at certain Web sites.[B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them.[C] eager to help their friends promote quality products.[D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products.
32. According to Paragraph 2, sold media feature[A] a safe business environment.[B] random competition.[C] strong user traffic.[D] flexibility in organization.
33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media[A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers.[B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing.[C] may be responsible for fiercer competition.[D] deserve all the negative comments about them.
34. Toyota Motor’s experience is cited as an example of[A] responding effectively to hijacked media.[B] persuading customers into boycotting products.[C] cooperating with supportive consumers.[D] taking advantage of hijacked media.
35. Which of the following is the text mainly about?[A] Alternatives to conventional paid media.[B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media.[C] Dominance of hijacked media.[D] Popularity of owned media.

Text4 
It’s no surprise that Jennifer Senior’s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I love My Children, I Hate My Life, ” is arousing much chatter nothing gets people talking like the  suggestion that child rearing is  anything less than a  completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or  miserable, Senior suggests we  need to  redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to­day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that “the very things that in  the  moment dampen our  moods can later be  sources of  intense gratification and delight.” The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-and-child image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive and newly single morn Sandra Bullock, as well as the usual “Jennifer Aniston is  pregnant” news. Practically every week features at  least one celebrity morn, or morn-to-be, smiling on the newsstands. In  a  society that  so  persistently celebrates procreation, is  it  any  wonder that admitting you  regret having children is  equivalent to  admitting you support kitten­killing? It doesn’t seem quite fair, then, to compare the regrets of parents to the regrets of the  childless. Unhappy parents rarely are  provoked to  wonder if they shouldn’t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in  the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives. www.ienglishcn.comOf course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us  Weekly and People present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are  the  least happy of  all.  No  shock there, considering how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on;  yet to hear Sandra and Britney tell it, raising a kid on their “own” (read: with round-the­clock help) is a piece of cake. It’s hard to  imagine that  many people are  dumb enough to  want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it’s interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren’t in  some small, subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped getting “the Rachel” might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston. 

36. Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring[A] temporary delight.[B] enjoyment in progress.[C] happiness in retrospect.[D] lasting reward.
37.  We learn from Paragraph 2 that [A] celebrity morns are a permanent source for gossip.[B] single mothers with babies deserve greater attention.[C] news about pregnant celebrities is entertaining.[D] having children is highly valued by the public.
38. It is suggested in Paragraph 3 that childless folks[A] are constantly exposed to criticism.[B] are largely ignored by the media.[C] fail to fulfill their social responsibilities.[D] are less likely to be satisfied with their life.
39. According to Paragraph 4, the message conveyed by celebrity magazines is[A] soothing.[B] ambiguous.[C] compensatory.[D] misleading.
40. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?[A] Having children contributes little to the glamour of celebrity morns.[B] Celebrity morns have influenced our attitude towards child rearing.[C] Having children intensifies our dissatisfaction with life.[D] We sometimes neglect the happiness from child rearing .

PartB 
Directions: 
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and  filling them into the  numbered boxes. Paragraphs E  and G have beencorrectly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[A]  No disciplines have seized on  professionalism with as much enthusiasm as thehumanities. You can, Mr. Menand points out, become a lawyer in three yearsand a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral degreein  the  humanities is  nine years. Not surprisingly, up  to  half of  all  doctoralstudents in English drop out before getting their degrees.
[BJ His concern is mainly with the humanities: literature, languages, philosophy and so  on.  These are  disciplines that  are  going out  of style: 22% of  American college graduates now major in business compared with only 2% in history and 4% in  English. However, many leading American universities want their undergraduates to  have a  grounding in  the  basic canon of  ideas that every educated person should possess. But  most find it difficult to  agree on  what a “general education” should look like. At  Harvard, Mr. Menand notes, “the great books are read because they have been read” they form a sort of social glue. 
[C]  Equally unsurprisingly, only about half end  up  with professorships for  which they entered graduate school. There are  simply too  few  posts. This is  partly because universities continue to  produce ever more PhDs. But  fewer students want to study humanities subjects: English departments awarded more bachelor’s degrees in 1970-71 than they did 20 years later. Fewer students require fewer teachers. So, at the end of a decade of thesis-writing, many humanities students leave the profession to do something for which they have not been trained. 
[D]  One reason why it is hard to design and teach such courses is that they cut across the  insistence by  top  American universities that liberal-arts education and professional education should be  kept separate, taught in  different schools. Many students experience both varieties. Although more than half of Harvard undergraduates end up in law, medicine or business, future doctors and lawyers must study a non-specialist liberal-arts degree before embarking on a professional qualification.

[E] Besides professionalising the  professions by  this separation, top  American universities have professionalised the professor. The growth in  public money for  academic research has  speeded the  process: federal research grants rose fourfold between 1960 and  1990, but  faculty teaching hours fell  by  half as research took its  toll. Professionalism has  turned the  acquisition of a  doctoral degree into a prerequisite for  a  successful academic career: as late as  1969 a third of  American professors did  not  possess one. But the  key  idea behind professionalisation, argues Mr. Menand, is  that “the knowledge and skills needed for a particular specialisation are transmissible but not transferable.” So disciplines acquire a monopoly not just over the production of knowledge, but also over the production of the producers of knowledge. 
[F]  The key  to reforming higher education, concludes Mr. Menand, is  to alter the way in  which “the producers of  knowledge are produced”. Otherwise, academics will continue to  think dangerously alike, increasingly detached from the societies which they study, investigate and criticise. “Academic inquiry, at  least in  some fields, may need to  become less exclusionary and  more holistic.” Yet quite how that happens, Mr. Menand does not say. 
[G] The subtle and  intelligent little book The Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University should be read by every  student thinking of applying to  take a  doctoral degree. They may then decide to go elsewhere. For  something curious has  been  happening in  American universities, and Louis Menand, a professor of English at Harvard University, captured it skillfully.
 G 1-141.  1-142. 1-1 E 1-143. 1-144. 1-14 5.-

PartC 
Directions: 
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) With its theme that “Mind is the master weaver,” creating our inner character and outer circumstances, the  book As  a  Man Thinketh by  James Allen is  an  in-depth exploration of the central idea of self-help writing. (46) Allen’s contribution was to take an assumption we all share that becausewe are not robots we therefore control our thoughts and reveal its erroneous nature. Because most of us believe that mind is separate from matter, we think that thoughts can be hidden and made powerless; this allows us to think one way and act another. However, Allen believed that the unconscious mind generates as much action as the conscious mind, and  (47)  while we  may be  able to  sustain the  illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: “Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that?” Since desire and will are damaged by the presence of thoughts that do not accord with desire, Allen concluded: “We do not attract what we want, but what we are.” Achievement happens because you as a person embody the external achievement; you don’t “get” success but become it. There is no gap between mind and matter. Part of the  fame of Allen’s book is  its  contention that  “Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him.” ( 48) This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom. This, however, would be a knee-jerk reaction to a subtle argument. Each set of circumstances, however bad, offers a unique opportunity for growth. If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. In fact, ( 49) circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us, and if we feel that we have been “wronged” then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation. Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a person’s early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to an individual. The sobering aspect of Allen’s book is that we have no one else to blame for our present condition except ourselves. (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up  to us;  where before we were experts in  the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible . 

Section III Writing 
Part A 
51. Directions:
Write a letter to a friend of yours to
1) recommend one of your favorite movies and
2) give reasons for your recommendation.
You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2.
Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” insteadDo not write the address. (10 points)

PartB 
52. Directions:
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay,you should 
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) explain its intended meaning, and
3) give your comments.You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

2011年考研英语一真题

旅程之“余”

2011年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题参考答案
Section I: Use of English (10 points) 
1-5: C-D-B-B-A 
6-10:B-A-D-C-A 
11-15:    B-C-D-C-B
16-20:    D-A-D-A-C

Section II: Reading Comprehension (60 points) Part A (40 points) 
21-25: C-B-D-B-A 
26-30: B-D-C-A-C 
31-35: D-C-B-A-A 
36-40: C-D-A-D-B 

Part B (10 points) 
41-45: B-D-A-C-F 

Part C (10 points)
46.艾伦的贡献在于,他探讨了一个公认的假设“因为我们不是机器人,所以我们能够控制自己的想法”,并揭示了其错误的本质。
47. 我们或许只靠  意识就可维持“掌控一切”的幻觉,但事实上我们一直面临一个问题:“为什么我们不能让自己做到这件事或实现那个目标?”
48. 这似乎 为忽视需要帮助的人找到了借口,使剥削变得合理化了,使富人优越、穷人卑微变得有道理了。
49. 环境似乎   旨在激发我们最大的潜能:如果我们感到“上天不公”,就不可能有意识地试图脱离现状。
50. 从积极的方面看,既然万事都取决于我们自己,那么就有无限可能;过去,我们是面对种种局限性的专家;现在,我们成了掌控所有可能性的权威。

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