Part ⅠWriting (30 minutes)
Directions：For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic The Impact of the Internet on Interpersonal Communication. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
The Impact of the Internet on Interpersonal Communication
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15minutes)
Directions: In this part. You will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A)、B)、C）and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
The Three-Year Solution
Hartwick College, a small liberal-arts school in upstate New York, makes New York, makes this offer to well prepared students: earn your undergraduate degree in three years instead of four, and save about 543,000—the amount of one year’s tuition and fees. A number of innovative colleges are making the same offer to students anxious about saving time and money. That’s both an opportunity and a warning for the best higher-education system in the world.
The United States has almost all of the world’s best universities. A recent Chinese survey ranks 35 American universities among the top 50, eight among the top 10. Our research universities have been the key to developing the competitive advantages that help Americans produce 25% of all the world’s wealth. In 2007, 623,805 of the world’s brightest students were attracted to American universities.
Yet, there are signs of peril (危险)within American higher education. U.S. colleges have to compete in the marketplace. Students may choose among 6,000 public, private, nonprofit, for profit, or religious institutions of higher learning. In addition, almost all of the 532 billion the federal government provides for university research is awarded competitively.
But many colleges and universities are stuck in the past. For instance, the idea of the fall-to-spring“schoolyear”hasn’t changed much since before the American Revolution, when we were a summer stretch no longer makes sense. Former George Washington University president Stephen Trachtenberg estimates that a typical college uses its facilities for academic purposes a little more than half the calendar year.“While college facilities sit idle, they continue to generate maintenance expenses that contribute to the high cost of running a college,” he has written.
Within academic departments, tenure(终身职位)，combined with age-discrimination laws, makes faculty turnover—critical for a university to remain current in changing times—difficult. Instead of protecting speech and encouraging diversity and innovative thinking, the tenure system often stifles(压制)them: younger professors must win the approval of established colleagues for tenure, encouraging like-mindedness and sometimes inhibiting the free flow of ideas.
Meanwhile, tuition has soared, leaving graduating students with unprecedented loan debt. Strong campus presidents to manage these problems are becoming harder to find, and to keep. In fact, students now stay on campus almost as long as their presidents. The average amount of time students now take to complete an undergraduate degree has stretched to six years and seven months as students interrupted by work, inconvenienced by unavailable classes, or lured by one more football season find it hard to graduate.
Congress has tried to help students with college costs through Pell Grants and other forms of tuition support. But some of their fixes have made the problem worse. The stack of congressional regulations governing federal student grants and loans now stands twice as tall as I do. Filling out these forms consumes 7% of every tuition dollar.
For all of these reasons, some colleges like Hartwick are rethinking the old way of doing things and questioning decades-old assumptions about what a college degree means. For instance, why does it have to take four years to earn a diploma? This fall, 16 first-year students and four second-year students at Hartwick enrolled in the school’s new three year degree program. According to the college, the plan is designed for high-ability, highly motivated student who wish to save money or to move along more rapidly toward advanced degrees.
By eliminating that extra year, there year degree students save 25% in costs. Instead of taking 30 credits a year, these students take 40. During January, Hartwick runs a four week course during which students may earn three to four credits on or off campus, including a number of international sites. Summer courses are not required, but a student may enroll in them—and pay extra. Three year students get first crack at course registration. There are no changes in the number of courses professors teach or in their pay.
The three-year degree isn’t a new idea. Geniuses have always breezed through. Judson College, a 350-student institution in Alabama, has offered students a three-year option for 40 years. Students attend “short terms” in May and June to earn the credits required for graduation. Bates College in Maine and Ball State University in Indiana are among other colleges offering three-year options.
Changes at the high-school level are also helping to make it easier for many students to earn their undergraduate degrees in less time. One of five students arrives at college today with Advanced Placement (AP) credits amounting to a semester or more of college level work. Many universities, including large schools like the University of Texas, make it easy for these AP students to graduate faster.
For students who don’t plan to stop with an undergraduate degree, the three-year plan may have an even greater appeal. Dr. John Sergent, head of Vanderbilt University Medical School’s residency (住院医生) program, enrolled in Vanderbilt’s undergraduate college in 1959. He entered medical school after only three years as did four or five of his classmates.” My first year of medical school counted as my senior year, which meant I had to take three to four labs a week to get all my sciences in. I basically skipped my senior year,” says Sergent. He still had time to be a student senator and meet his wife.
There are, however, drawbacks to moving through school at such a brisk pace. For one, it deprives students of the luxury of time to roam (遨游) intellectually. Compressing everything into three years also leaves less time for growing up, engaging in extracurricular activities, and studying abroad. On crowded campuses it could mean fewer opportunities to get into a prized professor’s class. Iowa’s Waldorf College has graduated several hundred students in its three-year degree program, but it now phasing out the option. Most Waldorf students wanted the full four-year experience—academically, socially, and athletically. And faculty members will be wary of any change that threatens the core curriculum in the name of moving students into the workforce.
“Most high governmental officials seem to conceive of education in this light—as a way to ensure economic competitiveness and continued economic growth,” Derek Bok, former president of Harvard, told The Washington Post. “I strongly disagree with this approach.” Another risk: the new campus schedules might eventually produce less revenue for the institution and longer working hours for faculty members.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
Adopting a three-year option will not come easily to most school. Those that wish to tackle tradition and make American campus more cost-conscious may find it easier to take Trachtenberg’s advice: open campuses year-round.“You could run two complete colleges, with two complete faculties,”hesays.“That’s without cutting the length of students’ vacations, increasing class sizes, or requiring faculty to teach more.”
Whether they experiment with three-year degrees, offer year-round classes, challenge the tenure system—or all of the above—universities are slowly realizing that to stay competitive and relevant they must adapt to a rapidly changing world.
Expanding the three-year option may be difficult, but it may be less difficult than asking Congress for additional financial help, asking legislators for more state support, or asking students even higher tuition payments. Campuses willing to adopt convenient schedules along with more focused, less-expensive degrees may find that they have a competitive advantage in attracting bright, motivated students. These sorts of innovations can help American universities avoid the perils of success.
1. Why did Hartwick College start three-year degree programs?
A) To create chances for the poor. C) To enroll more students.
B) To cut students’ expenses. D) To solve its financial problems.
2. By quoting Stephen Trachtenberg the author wants to say that .
A) American universities are resistant to change
B) the summer vacation contributes to student growth
C) college facilities could be put to more effective use
D) the costs of running a university are soaring
3. The author thinks the tenure system in American universities .
A）suppresses creative thinking C) guarantees academic freedom
B) creates conflicts among colleagues D) is a sign of age discrimination
4. What is said about the new three-year degree program at Hartwick?
A) Its students have to earn more credits each year.
B) Non-credit courses are eliminated altogether.
C) Its faculty members teach more hours a week.
D) Some summer courses are offered free of charge.
5. What do we learn about Judson College’s three-year degree program?
A) It has been running for several decades.
B) It is open to the brightest students only.
C) It is the most successful in the country.
D) It has many practical courses on offer.
6. What changes in high schools help students earn undergraduate degrees in three years?
A) Curriculums have been adapted to students’ needs.
B) More students have Advanced Placement credits.
C) More elective courses are offered in high school.
D) The overall quality of education bas improved.
7. What is said to be a drawback of the three-year college program?
A) Students have to cope with too heavy a workload.
B) Students don’t have much time to roam intellectually.
C) Students have little time to gain practical experience.
D) Students don’t have prized professors to teach them.
8. College faculty members are afraid that the pretext of moving students into the workforce might pose a threat to ______.
9. Universities are increasingly aware that they must adapt to a rapidly changing world in order to ______.
10. Convenient academic schedules with more-focused, less-expensive degrees will be more attractive to ______.
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B) ,C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11. A) The serious accident may leave Anna paralyzed.
B) The man happened to see Anna fall on her back.
C) The injury will confine Anna to bed for quite a while.
D) The doctor’s therapy has been very successful.
12. A) The man could watch the ballet with her.
B) She happened to have bought two tickets.
C) She can get a ballet ticket for the man.
D) Her schedule conflicts with her sister’s.
13. A) He will send someone right away.
B) He has to do other repairs first.
C) The woman can call later that day.
D) The woman can try to fix it herself.
14. A) Take up collection next week.
B) Give his contribution some time later.
C) Buy an expensive gift for Gemma.
D) Borrow some money from the woman.
15. A) Decline the invitation as early as possible.
B) Ask Tony to convey thanks to his mother.
C) Tell Tony’s mother that she eats no meat.
D) Add more fruits and vegetables to her diet.
16. A) The increasing crime rate.
B) The impact of mass media.
C) The circulation of newspapers.
D) The coverage of newspapers.
17. A) Limit the number of participants in the conference.
B) Check the number of people who have registered.
C) Provide people with advice on career development.
D) Move the conference to a more spacious place.
18. A) The apartment is still available.
B) The apartment is close to the campus.
C) The advertisement is outdated.
D) On-campus housing is hard to secure.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) To test how responsive dolphins are to various signals.
B) To find out if the female dolphin is cleverer than the male one.
C) To see if dolphins can learn to communicate with each other.
D) To examine how long it takes dolphins to acquire a skill.
20. A) Produce the appropriate sound.
B) Press the right-hand lever first.
C) Raise their heads above the water.
D) Swim straight into the same tank.
21. A) Only one dolphin was able to see the light.
B) The male dolphin received more rewards.
C) Both dolphins were put in the same tank.
D) The lever was beyond the dolphins’ reach.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
22. A) In a botanical garden.
B) In a lecture room.
C) In a resort town.
D) On a cattle farm.
23. A) It is an ideal place for people to retire to.
B) It is at the centre of the fashion industry.
C) It remains very attractive with its mineral waters.
D) It has kept many traditions from Victorian times.
24. A) It was named after a land owner in the old days.
B) It is located in the eastern part of Harrogate.
C) It is protected as parkland by a special law.
D) It will be used as a centre for athletic training.
25. A) The beautiful flowers.
B) The refreshing air.
C) The mineral waters.
D) The vast grassland.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 26 to 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
D）He specializes in interpersonal relationship.
27. A) Students who scored low standardized tests.
B) Black freshmen with high standardized test scores.
C) Students who are accustomed to living in dorms.
D) Black students from families with low incomes.
28. A) They at the college dorms at the end of the semester.
B) They were of the university’s housing policy.
C) They generally spend more time together that white pairs.
D) They broke up more often than same-race roommates.
29. A) Their racial attitudes improved.
B) Their test scores rose gradually.
C) They grew bored of each other.
D) They started doing similar activities.
Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
30. A) It will become popular gradually.
B) It will change the concept of food.
C) It has attracted worldwide attention.
D) It can help solve global flood crises.
31. A) It has been increased over the years.
B) It has been drastically cut by NASA.
C) It is still far from being sufficient.
D) It comes regularly from its donors.
32. A) They are less healthy than we expected.
B) They are not as expensive as believe.
C) They are more nutritious and delicious.
D) They are not as natural as we believed.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
33. A) He has better memories of childhood.
B) He was accused of family violence.
C) He is a habitual criminal.
D) He was wrongly imprisoned.
34. A) The jury’s prejudice against his race.
B) The evidence found at the crime scene.
C) The two victims’ identification.
D) The testimony of his two friends.
35. A) The US judicial system has much room for improvement.
B) Frightened victims can rarely make correct identification.
C) Eyewitnesses are often misled by the layer’s questions.
D) Many factors influence the accuracy of witness testimony.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
About 700,000 children in Mexico dropped out of school last year as recession-stricken families pushed kids to work, and a weak economic recovery will allow only a (36)_________improvement in the drop-out rate in 2010, a top education (37) _________said.
Mexico’s economy suffered more than any other in Latin America last year, (38) _________an estimated 7 percent due to a (39) _________in U.S. demand for Mexican exports such as cars.
The (40) _________led to a 4 percent increase in the number of kids who left (41) _________or middle school in 2009, said Juan de Dios Castro, who (42) _________the nation’s adult education program and keeps a close watch on drop-out rates.
“(43) _________rose and that is a factor that makes our job more difficult.” Castro told Reuters in an interview earlier this month.
(44)___________________________________________________________________________________________________.As a result, drop-out rates will not improve much, Castro said. “There will be some improvement, but not significant,” Castro said.
(45)___________________________________________________________________________________________________. And children often sell candy and crafts in the streets or word in restaurants.
(46)___________________________________________________________________________________________________. Mexico’s politicians have resisted mending the country’s tax, energy and labor laws for decades, leaving its economy behind countries such as Brazil and Chile.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth) (25minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
In face of global warming, much effort has been focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions through a variety of strategies. But while much of the research and innovation has concentrated on finding less-polluting energy alternatives, it may be decades before clean technologies like wind and solar meet a significant portion of our energy needs.
In the meantime, the amount of CO2 in the air is rapidly approaching the limits proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). “As long as we’re consuming fossil fuels, we’re putting out CO2,”says Klaus Lackner, a geophysicist at Columbia, University” We cannot let the CO2 in the atmosphere rise indefinitely.”
That sense of urgency has increased interest in capturing and storing CO2, which the IPCC says could provide the more than 50% reduction in emissions thought needed to reduce global warming.“We see the potential for capture and storage to play an integral role in reducing emissions,” says Kim Corley, Shell’s senior advisor of CO2 and environmental affairs. That forward thinking strategy is gaining support. The U.S. Department of Energy recently proposed putting $1 billion into a new $2.4 billion coal-burning energy plant. The plant’s carbon-capture technologies would serve as a pilot project for other new coal-burning plants.
But what do you do with the gas once you’ve captured it? One option is to put it to new uses. Dakota Gasification of North Dakota captures CO2 at a plant that converts coal into synthetic natural gas. It then ships the gas 200 miles by pipeline to Canada, where it is pumped underground in oil recovery operations. In the Netherlands, Shell delivers CO2 to farmers who pipe it into their greenhouses, increasing their yield of fruits and vegetables.
However, scientists say that the scale of CO2 emissions will require vast amounts of long-term storage. Some propose storing the CO2 in coal mines or liquid storage in the ocean, Shell favors storing CO2 in deep geological structures such as saline(盐的) formations and exhausted oil and gas fields that exist throughout the world.
47. What are suggested as renewable and less-polluting energy alternatives?
48. What does the author say is a forward thinking strategy concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions?
49. One way of handing the captured CO2 as suggested by the author is to store it and .
50. Through using CO2, Dutch farmers have been able to .
51. Long-term storage of CO2 is no easy job because of .
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
As anyone who has tried to lose weight knows, realistic goal-setting generally produces the best results. That’s partially because it appears people who set realistic goals actually work more efficiently, and exert more effort, to achieve those goals.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
What’s far less understood by scientists, however, are the potentially harmful effects of goal-setting.
Newspapers relay daily accounts of goal-setting prevalent in industries and businesses up and down both Wall Street and Main Street , yet there has been surprisingly little research on how the long-trumpeted practice of setting goals may have contributed to the current economic crisis , and unethical （不道德的）behavior in general.
“Goals are widely used and promoted as having really beneficial effects. And yet, the same motivation that can push people to exert more effort in a constructive way could also motivate people to be more likely to engage in unethical behaviors,” says Maurice Schweitzer, an associate professor at Penn’s Wharton School.
“It turns out there’s no economic benefit to just having a goal—you just get a psychological benefit” Schweitzer says. “But in many cases, goals have economic rewards that make them more powerful.”
A prime example Schweitzer and his colleagues cite is the 2004 collapse of energy-trading giant Enron, where managers used financial incentives to motivate salesmen to meet specific revenue goals. The problem, Schweitzer says, is the actual trades were not profitable.
Other studies have shown that saddling employees with unrealistic goals can compel them to lie, cheat or steal. Such was the case in the early 1990s when Sears imposed a sales quota on its auto repair staff. It prompted employees to overcharge for work and to complete unnecessary repairs on a companywide basis.
Schweitzer concedes his research runs counter to a very large body of literature that commends the many benefits of goal-setting. Advocates of the practice have taken issue with his team’s use of such evidence as news accounts to support his conclusion that goal-setting is widely over-prescribed.
In a rebuttal (反驳) paper, Dr. Edwin Locke writes:“Goal-setting is not going away. Organizations cannot thrive without being focused on their desired end results any more than an individual can thrive without goals to provide a sense of purpose.”
But Schweitzer contends the “mounting causal evidence” linking goal-setting and harmful behavior should be studied to help spotlight issues that merit caution and further investigation. “Even a few negative effects could be so large that they outweigh many positive effects,” he says.
“Goal-setting does help coordinate and motivate people. My idea would be to combine that with careful oversight, a strong organizational culture, and make sure the goals that you use are going to be constructive and not significantly harm the organization,” Schweitzer says.
52. What message does the author try to convey about goal-setting?
A) Its negative effects have long been neglected.
B) The goal increase people’s work efficiency.
C) Its role has been largely underestimated.
D) The goals most people set are unrealistic.
53. What does Maurice Schweitzer want to show by citing the example of Enron?
A) Setting realistic goals can turn a failing business into success.
B) Businesses are less likely to succeed without setting realistic goals.
C) Financial incentives ensure companies meet specific revenue goals.
D) Goals with financial rewards have strong motivational power.
54. How did Sears’ goal-setting affect its employees?
A) They were obliged to work more hours to increase their sales.
B) They competed with one another to attract more customers.
C) They resorted to unethical practice to meet their sales quota.
D) They improved their customer service on a companywide basis.
55. What do advocates of goal-setting think of Schweitzer’s research?
A) Its findings are not of much practical value.
B) It exaggerates the side effects of goal-setting.
C) Its conclusion is not based on solid scientific evidence.
D) It runs counter to the existing literature on the subject.
56. What is Schweitzer’s contention against Edwin Locke?
A) The link between goal-setting and harmful behavior deserves further study.
B) Goal-setting has become too deep-rooted in corporate culture.
C) The positive effects of goal-setting outweigh its negative effects.
D) Studying goal-setting can throw more light on successful business practices.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
For most of the 20th century, Asia asked itself what it could learn from the modern, innovating West. Now the question must be reversed. What can the West’s overly indebted and sluggish (经济滞长的) nations learn from a flourishing Asia?
Just a few decades ago, Asia’s two giants were stagnating(停滞不前) under faulty economic ideologies. However, once China began embracing free-market reforms in the 1980s, followed by India in the 1990s, both countries achieved rapid growth. Crucially, as they opened up their markets, they balanced market economy with sensible government direction. As the Indian economist AmartyaSen has wisely said, “The invisible hand of the market has often relied heavily on the visible hand of government.”
Contrast this middle path with America and Europe, which have each gone ideologically over-board in their own ways. Since the 1980s, America has been increasingly clinging to the ideology of uncontrolled free markets and dismissing the role of government—following Ronald Regan’s idea that “government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem. “Of course, when the markets came crashing down in 2007, it was decisive government intervention that saved the day. Despite this fact, many Americans are still strongly opposed to “big government.”
If Americans could only free themselves from their antigovernment doctrine, they would begin to see that the America’s problems are not insoluble. A few sensible federal measures could put the country back on the right path. A simple consumption tax of, say, 5% would significantly reduce the country’s huge government deficit without damaging productivity. A small gasoline tax would help free America from its dependence on oil imports and create incentives for green energy development. In the same way, a significant reduction of wasteful agricultural subsidies could also lower the deficit. But in order to take advantage of these common-sense solutions, Americans will have to put aside their own attachment to the idea of smaller government and less regulation. American politicians will have to develop the courage to follow what is taught in all American public-policy schools: that there are good taxes and bad taxes. Asian countries have embraced this wisdom, and have built sound long-term fiscal (财政的) policies as a result.
Meanwhile, Europe has fallen prey to a different ideological trap: the belief that European governments would always have infinite resources and could continue borrowing as if there were no tomorrow. Unlike the Americans, who felt that the markets knew best, the Europeans failed to anticipate how the markets would react to their endless borrowing. Today, the European Union is creating a $580 billion fund to ward off sovereign collapse. This will buy the EU time, but it will not solve the bloc’s larger problem.
57. What has contributed to the rapid economic growth in China and India?
A) Copying western-style economic behavior.
B) Heavy reliance on the hand of government.
C) Timely reform of government at all levels.
D) Free market plus government intervention.
58. What does Ronald Reagan mean by saying “government is the problem” (line4, Para. 3)?
A) Many social evils are caused by wrong government policies.
B) Many social problems arise from government’s inefficiency.
C) Government action is key to solving economic problems.
D) Government regulation hinders economic development.
59. What stopped the American economy from collapsing in 2007?
A) Self-regulatory repair mechanisms of the free market.
B) Cooperation between the government and businesses.
C) Abandonment of big government by the public.
D) Effective measures adopted by the government.
60. What is the author’s suggestion to the American public in face of the public government deficit?
A) They urge the government to revise its existing public policies.
B) They develop green energy to avoid dependence on oil import.
C) They give up the idea of smaller government and less regulation.
D) They put up with the inevitable sharp increase of different taxes.
61. What’s the problem with the European Union?
A) Conservative ideology.
B) Shrinking market.
C) Lack of resources.
D) Excessive borrowing.
Part V Close
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A)，B)，C）and D)on the right side of paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Music produces profound and lasting changes in the brain. Schools should add music classes, not cut them. Nearly 20 years ago, a small study advanced the 62 that listening to Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major could boost mental functioning. It was not long 63 trademarked “Mozart effect” products began to appeal to anxious parents aiming to put toddlers (刚学步的孩子) 64 the fast track to prestigious universities like Harvard and Yale. Georgia’s governor even 65 giving every newborn there a classical CD or cassette.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
The 66 for Mozart therapy turned out to be weak, perhaps nonexistent, although the 67 study never claimed anything more than a temporary and limited effect. In recent years, 68 , scientists have examined the benefits of a concerted 69 to study and practice music, as 70 to playing a Mozart CD or a computer-based“brain fitness” game 71 in a while.
Advanced monitoring 72 have enabled scientists to see what happens 73 your head when you listen to your mother and actually practice the violin for an hour every afternoon. And they have found that music 74 can produce profound and lasting changes that 75 the general ability to learn. These results should 76 public officials that music classes are not a mere decoration, ripe for discarding in the budget crises that constantly 77 public schools.
Studies have shown that 78 instrument training from an early age can help the brain to 79 sounds better, making it easier to stay focused when absorbing other subjects, from literature to mathematics. The musically adept (擅长的)are better able to 80 on a biology lesson despite the noise in the classroom 81 , a few years later, to finish a call with a client when a colleague in the next office starts screaming a subordinate. They can attend to several things at once in the mental scratch pad called working memory, an essential skill in this era of multitasking.
62．A)notice B)note C)notion D)notification
63．A)that B)until C)since D)Before
64．A)up B)by C)on D)at
65．A)propelled B) proposed C) submitted D)subjected
66．A)witness B) evidence C) symptom D)context
67．A)subtle B) elementary C) sensitive D)original
68．A)however B)moreover C) then D)therefore
69．A)effort B)impulse C) object D)attention
70．A)opposed B)accustomed C) related D)devoted
71．A)quite B)once C) often D)much
72．A)organisms B)techniques C) mechanisms D)mechanics
73．A)upon B)amid C) among D)inside
74．A)subjects B)models C) causes D)lessons
75．A)enhance B)introduce C) accelerate D)elaborate
76．A)contend B) convey C) conceive D)convince
77．A)trouble B)transform C) distract D)disclose
78．A)urgent B)casual C) diligent D)solemn
79．A)proceed B)process C) prefer D)predict
80．A)count B)concentrate C) insist D)depend
81．A)but B)or C) for D)so
Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
82. I think that the meal is well (没有折扣的情况下值80美元).
83. (面对来自其他公司的激烈竞争), the automobile manufacturer is considering launching a promotion campaign.
84. As far as hobbies are concerned, Jane and her sister (几乎没有什么共同之处).
85. Only after many failures (我才认识到仅凭运气是不能成功的).
86. But for the survival instinct which nearly all creatures have, (更多的物种就可能已经在地球上灭绝了).
Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled The Impact of the Internet on Interpersonal Communication. Your essay should start with a brief description of the picture. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
The Impact of the Internet on Interpersonal Communication
As is described in the picture, a father asks her daughter how her school today goes on. Instead of answering directly, the daughter tells her father to read her blog. It is common that youngsters nowadays incline to communicate with others on internet increasingly, and lack communication with people around them. With the development of Internet, it has influenced our society to a large extent, especially interpersonal communication.
To begin with, we can communicate with others anytime via internet. Otherwise, we would have to arrange our schedules strictly in advance. Also, interpersonal communication through the internet is not restricted by space. For example, in most multinational corporations, instant messages and video conferences help colleagues solve problems timely and efficiently. Last but not least, the internet can greatly speed up our interpersonal communication. Whereas, there are also disadvantages that the internet brings to us. More and more people complained that they have lost face-to-face communicating skills. As a result, people become more and more indifferent to each other in real life. Some netizens who are immersed in virtual world even have difficulty in making friends in reality.
In conclusion, communication through the internet could bring us both convenience and inconvenience. We should strike a balance between them and make the best of the internet.
本篇范文在句式上，长短搭配，形式多变。从句、非谓语动词等多种表达方式，值得借鉴。同时，用词同样注意多样化，对网络相关词汇的多种表达（web, cyber, instant message, video conference等），考生同样应在平时注意归类、积累。
The Impact of the Internet on Interpersonal Communication
Today I saw an interesting cartoon, in which a father asked his daughter about her school performance of the day, and the daughter replied that he could go to her blog to check it. This small cartoon indicates a big change in our life, especially the way people communicate.
Internet enables people to break though the limitations of distance, strengthening social network. Unlike post offices, Internet service with its convenience helps people engage and converse real time with their parents, soul mates, friends though emails, IRC, micro blog anytime, anywhere with a network terminal, without suffering the long and painful wait for a reply.
Besides, such online communities as Twitter, Facebook are well under way and becoming the most dominating platforms for on-line social activities. These communities offer great opportunities for us to follow and interact with those we like and even those celebrities. It is also a platform for us to share and update information of each other, and learn the outside world.
Internet today and tomorrow is a virtual space where we live, where we learn, where we speak, and where we communicate.
今年的六级作文依旧延续了四六级的传统，考查“现象类”话题，要求根据漫画，发表对于“The impact of the internet on interpersonal communication”的观点。近年的六级作文题目，已经不再局限于传统的议论文考察模式，即要求考生给出非此即彼或既此既彼的观点、而是偏向于启发考生自己去思考，结合自己的生活经历以及对事物的理解，对话题中的现象进行深入的探讨，给出事实支撑。
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sen tences with the information given in the passage.
1. A) To cut students’ expenses.
2. B) college facilities could be put to more effective use.
3. C) suppresses creative thinking
4. A) Its students have to earn more credits each year.
5. B) It has been running for several decades.
6. B) More students have Advanced Placement credits.
7. A) Students don’t have much time to roam intellectually.
8. the core curriculum
9. stay competitive and relevant
10. bright, motivated students
之后，作者指出正是由于以上的这些问题，许多学校才会进行学制改革并且描述了Hartwick, Judson College等学校在缩短学制后课程方面的一些改革和做法。随后作者指出缩短学制的一些弊端：学生缺少时间进行思考，缺少时间参加课外活动或者出国留学，威胁学校的核心课程体系等。
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
W: Did you hear that Anna needs to stay in bed for 4 weeks?
M: Yeah. She injured her spine in a fall and a doctor told her to lie flat on her back for a month so it can mend.
Q: What can we learn from the conversation?
【答案】A) The injury will confine Anna to bed for quite a while.
M: A famous Russian ballet is coming to town next weekend. But I can’t find a ticket anywhere.
W: Don’t be upset. My sister just happened to have one and she can’t go since she has got some sort of conflict in her schedule.
Q: What does the woman mean?
【答案】C) She can get a ballet ticket for the man.
W: Hello, my bathroom drain is blocked and I’m giving a party tonight. Do you think you could come and fix it for me?
M: Sorry, ma’am. I’m pretty busy right now. But I can put you on my list.
Q: What does the man mean?
【答案】A) He has to do other repairs first.
W: We’re taking up a collection to buy a gift for Gemma. She’ll have been with the company 25 years next week.
M: Well, count me in. But I’m a bit short on cash now. When do you need it?
Q: What is the man going to do?
【答案】C) Give his contribution some time later.
W: Tony’s mother has invited me to dinner. Do you think I should tell her in advance that I’m a vegetarian?
M: Of course. I think she’d appreciate it. Imaging how you both feel if she fixed the turkey dinner or something.
Q: What does the man suggest the woman do?
【答案】D) Tell Tony’s mother that she eats no meat.
【解析】此题为推理题。Tony的妈妈邀请女子吃饭，女子询问男子是不是应该提前告知自己是素食主义者。从男子的“I think she’d appreciate it”可知，男子给了他肯定的回答。
M: Just look at this newspaper, nothing but robberies, suicide and murder. Do you still believe people are basically good?
W: Of course. But many papers lack interest in reporting something positive like peace, love and generosity.
Q: What are the speakers talking about?
【答案】B) The coverage of newspapers.
M: I can’t believe so many people want to sign up for the Korea Development Conference. We will have to limit the registration.
W: Yeah, otherwise we won’t have room for the more.
Q: What are the speakers going to do?
【答案】C) Limit the number of participants in the conference.
W: Hi, I’m calling about the ad for the one bedroom apartment.
M: Perfect timing! The person who was supposed to rent it just backed town to take a room on campus.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
【答案】A) The apartment is still available.
W: One of the most interesting experiments with dolphins must be one done by Doctor Jarvis Bastian. What he tried to do was to teach a male dolphin called Bass and a female called Doris to communicate with each other across a solid barrier.
M: So how did he do it exactly?
W: Well, first of all, he kept the two dolphins together in the same tank and taught them to press levers whenever they saw a light. The levers were fitted to the side of the tank next to each other. If the light flashed on and off several times, the dolphins were supposed to press the left-hand lever followed by the right-hand one. If the light was kept steady, the dolphins were supposed to press the levers in reverse order. Whenever they responded correctly, they were rewarded with fish.
M: Sounds terribly complicated.
W: Well, that was the first stage. In the second stage, Doctor Bastian separated the dolphins into two tanks. They could still hear one another, but they couldn’t actually see each other. The levers and light were set up in exactly the same way except that this time it was only Doris who could see the light indicating which lever to press first. But in order to get their fish, both dolphins had to press the levers in the correct order. This meant of course that Doris had to tell Bass whether it was a flashing light or whether it was a steady light.
M: So did it work?
W: Well, amazingly enough, the dolphins achieved a 100 % success rate.
Questions 19-21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Q19. What is the purpose of Doctor Jarvis Bastian’s experiment?
Q20. What were the dolphins supposed to do when they saw a steady light?
Q21. How did the second stage of the experiment differ from the first stage?
19. D) to see if dolphins can communicate with each other.
20. A) Press the right-hand lever first.
21. C) Only one dolphin was able to see the light.
in reverse order 以相反的顺序
be rewarded with 得到奖励
flashing light 闪光灯
W: This week’s program Up Your Street takes you to Harrogate, a small town in Yorkshire. Harrogate became a fashionable resort during Victorian times, when people came to take a bath in the mineral waters. Today, few people come to visit the town for its mineral waters. Instead, Harrogate has become a popular town for people to retire to. Its clean air, attractive parks, and the absence of any industry, make this an ideal spot for people looking for a quiet life. Now, to tell us more about Harrogate, I have with me Tom Percival, President of the Chamber of Commerce. Tom, one of the things visitor notices about Harrogate is the large area of open park land right down into the middle of the town. Can you tell us more about it?
M: Yes, certainly. The area is called the Stray.
W: Why the Stray?
M: It’s called that because in the old days, people let their cattle stray on the area, which was common land.
W: Oh, I see.
M: Then, we’ve changes in farming and in land ownership. The Stray became part of the land owned by Harrogate.
W: And is it protected?
M: Oh, yes, indeed. As a special law, no one can build anything on the stray. It’s protected forever.
W: So it will always be park land?
M: That’s right. As you can see, some of the Stray is used for sports fields.
W: I believe it looks lovely in the spring.
M: Yes, it does. There’re spring flowers on the old trees, and people visit the town just to see the flowers.
Question 22-25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
Q22. Where does this conversation most probably take place?
Q23. What do we learn about modern Harrogate?
Q24. What does the man say about the area called the Stray?
Q25. What attracts people most in the Stray during the spring time?
22. B) In a resort town.
23. D) It is an ideal place for people to retire to.
24. D) It is protected as parkland by a special law.
25. C) The beautiful flowers.
这段长对话是对Harrogate这个旅游小镇的介绍，谈到其如何得名，如何变迁，以及如何受到政府的保护。由此可见，这段对话最有可能发生在一个旅游城镇。这段对话稍微难一点的地方在于几个单词，一个是地名Harrogate，另一个是Stray，以及头衔President of the Chamber of Commerce。解决这些难点也很容易，因为Harrogate这个地名和头衔不是考察点，考生可直接忽略。另外关于Stray，考生开始不懂没关系，要带着这个疑问去注意听原文，对话中随后就给出了明确解释，所以考生也会获得解答。
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Russell Fazio, an Ohio State psychology professor who has studied interracial roommates there and at Indiana University, discovered an intriguing academic effect. In a study analyzing data on thousands of Ohio State freshmen who lived in dorms, he found that black freshmen who came to college with high standardized test scores earned better grades if they had a white roommate — even if the roommate’s test scores were low. The roommate’s race had no effect on the grades of white students or low-scoring black students. Perhaps, the study speculated, having a white roommate helps academically prepared black students adjust to a predominantly white university.
That same study found that randomly assigned interracial roommates at Ohio State broke up before the end of the quarter about twice as often as same-race roommates.
Because interracial roommate relationships are often problematic, Dr. Fazio said, many students would like to move out, but university housing policies may make it hard to leave.
“At Indiana University, where housing was not so tight, more interracial roommates split up,” he said. “Here at Ohio State, where housing was tight, they were told to work it out. The most interesting thing we found was that if the relationship managed to continue for just 10 weeks, we could see an improvement in racial attitudes.”
Dr. Fazio’s Indiana study found that three times as many randomly assigned interracial roommates were no longer living together at the end of the semester, compared with white roommates. The interracial roommates spent less time together, and had fewer joint activities than the white pairs.
26. What do we know about Russell Fazio ?
27. Who benefited from living with a white roommate according to Fazio’s study?
28. What did the study find about randomly assigned interracial roommates at Ohio State University?
29. What did Dr. Fazio find interesting about interracial roommates who had lived together for 10 weeks?
26, C. He specialized in interpersonal relationship.
27. D. Black freshman with high standardized scores
28, C. They broke up more often than same-race roommates
29, C. The racial attitudes improved.
【解析】：本文节选自2009年7月的《纽约时报》，原文标题为Interracial Roommates Can Reduce Prejudice。文章属于社会类话题，大意为俄亥俄州立大学的一位名为Russell Fazio的心理学教授研究不同人种混居的有趣现象以及结论。无独有偶，2011年6月四级真题阅读理解Section B的Passage 1也选用了相同的话题，大家平时在备考中要对真题重视起来哦！
In a small laboratory at the Medical University of South Carolina, Dr. Vladimir Mironov has been working for a decade to grow meat. A developmental biologist and tissue engineer, Dr. Mironov, is one of only a few scientists worldwide involved in bioengineering ‘cultured’ meat.
It’s a product he believes could help solve future global food crises resulting from shrinking amounts of land available for growing meat the old-fashioned way.
“Growth of cultured meat is also under way in the Netherlands”, Mironov told Reuters in an interview, “but in the United States, it is science in search of funding and demand.”
The new National Institute of Food and Agriculture won’t fund it, the National Institutes of Health won’t fund it, and the NASA funded it only briefly, Mironov said.
“It’s classic disruptive technology,” Mironov said. “Bringing any new technology on the market, on average, costs $1 billion. We don’t even have $1 million.”
Director of the Advanced Tissue Biofabrication Center in the Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology at the medical university, Mironov now primarily conducts research on tissue engineering, or growing, of human organs.
“There’s an unpleasant factor when people find out meat is grown in a lab. They don’t like to associate technology with food,” said Nicholas Genovese, a visiting scholar in cancer cell biology.
“But there are a lot of products that we eat today that are considered natural that are produced in a similar manner,” Genovese said.
30. What does Dr. Mironov think of bioengineering cultured meat?
31. What does Dr. Mironov say about the funding for their research?
32. What does Nicholas Genovese say about a lot of products we eat today?
30, A. It will help solve the global food crisis.
31, D. It is still far from being sufficient.
32, D. They are not as natural as we believed.
这是路透社2011年初的一篇报道，题目为“South Carolina scientist works to grow meat in lab”。本文为食品科技类题材。大意为生物工程技术应用在实验室生产肉，可改变传统肉类获得方式，解决将来的食物危机，不过还需资金支持，同时人们还难以完全接受这种方式。
Bernard Jackson is a free man today, but he has many bitter memories. Jackson spent five years in prison after a jury wrongly convicted him of raping two women. At Jackson’s trial, although two witnesses testified that Jackson was with them in another location at the times of the crimes, he was convicted anyway. Why? The jury believed the testimony of the two victims, who positively identified Jackson as the man who has attacked them. The court eventually freed Jackson after the police found the man who had really committed the crimes. Jackson was similar in appearance to the guilty man. The two women has made a mistake in identity. As a result, Jackson has lost five years of his life.
The two women in this case were eyewitnesses. They clearly saw the man who attacked them, yet they mistakenly identified an innocent person. Similar incidents have occurred before. Eyewitnesses to other crimes have identified the wrong person in a police lineup or in photographs.
Many factors influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. For instance, witnesses sometimes see photographs of several suspects before they try to identify the person they saw in a lineup of people. They can become confused by seeing many photographs or similar faces. The number of people in the lineup, and whether it is a live lineup or a photograph, may also affect a witness’s decision. People sometimes have difficulty identifying people of other races. The questions the police ask witnesses also have an effect on them.
Question 33: What do we learn about Bernard Jackson?
Question 34: What led directly to Jackson’s sentence?
Question 35: What lesson do we learn from Jackson’s case?
33, A. He was wrongly imprisoned
34, A. The two victims’ identification
35, B. Many factors influence the accuracy of witness testimony.
虽然总体来说这篇文章难度不大，但是因为涉及专业知识，有一些词汇可能会成为考生的障碍。例如：testimony: 证人证言；witness: 目击证人；jury: 陪审团；sentence :刑期。如果考生平时能对这些单词有所接触，这篇文章在理解上就不会出现太大的问题。
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
44. Hampered by higher taxes and weak demand for its exports, Mexico’s economy is seen only partially recovering this year.
45. Mexico has historically had high drop-out rates as poor families pull kids out of school to help put food on the table，
46. The nation’s drop-out problem is just the latest bad news for the long-term competitiveness of the Mexican economy.https://www.ienglishcn.com/
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
47.capturing and storing CO2或者capture and storage of CO2
48. capture and storage
49. put it to new use
50. increase their yield of fruits and vegetables
51. the scale of CO2 emissions
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
52. D. Its negative effects have long been neglected.
53. A. Goals with financial rewards have strong motivational power.
54. B. They resorted to unethical practice to meet their sales quota.
55. B. Its conclusion is not based on solid scientific evidence.
56. A. Studying goal-setting can throw more light on successful business practices.
本文出自http://www.upenn.edu/pennnews/current/node/4056，原文题目为The dark side of goal-setting。 这篇文章有一定难度，尤其是作者的态度一定要把握好。作者并未全盘否定目标制定，而是说一定要制定切合实际的目标，以保证建设性推进计划，避免不道德行为伤害到计划的实施，因此这方面的研究值得继续推进下去，给大家更好的指导。
57. D) Free market plus government intervention.
58. B) Government regulation hinders economic development.
59. B) Effective measures adopted by the government.
60. D) They give up the idea of smaller government and less regulation.
61. D) Excessive borrowing.
文章改编自新闻网站The Daily Beast的文章Asian Wisdom，主题是“那些过度负债、经济增长缓慢的西方国家能从经济繁荣的亚洲学到什么东西”。作者认为美国和欧洲都受制于自己的意识形态，并指出一些明智的联邦政府措施就可以使美国重新走上正确的道路；欧洲的问题在于不断增加的债务，必须从根本上寻找解决之道。
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
本文出自2010年11月Scientific American Magazine. 文章主要阐述倾听音乐对于大脑有好处，可以提高人的学习能力。因而作者呼吁，学校不应取消音乐课。
虽然文章为科技文，且开头出现了许多专业术语，但内容并不生僻。所以，同学们千万不要被开头一长串的专业术语吓倒，保持良好心态，不要放弃。完形填空考查重点还在于对上下文的理解；动词与介词的搭配；形似词、同义词词义、用法的辨析，如62题中考查note, notice, notion, notification 之间的差异，词形相似，但意思截然不同。同学在平时背诵单词时，一定要多加总结归纳。
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.
82. I think that the meal is well worth $80 without a discount (没有折扣的情况下值80美元).
【点评】well worth，“值”，后跟动名词或名词；discount 折扣。
83. Facing the fierce competition from other companies (面对来自其他公司的激烈竞争), the automobile manufacturer is considering launching a promotion campaign.
【点评】横线处要填的是一个非谓语从句，根据句意可知前后主语都是the automobile manufacturer，因此用现在分词形式。
84. As far as hobbies are concerned, Jane and her sister nearly have nothing in common / hardly have anything in common (几乎没有什么共同之处).
【点评】have something in common有共同点，注意表示否定时副词的使用。
85. Only after many failures have I realized that I cannot succeed with luck merely (我才认识到仅凭运气是不能成功的).
86. But for the survival instinct which nearly all creatures have, more species would have been extinct from the earth (更多的物种就可能已经在地球上灭绝了).
【点评】but for，“要不是，如果没有”，这里考查虚拟语气，后面应该用would + have done的形式，强调这种非真实的虚拟对将来可能发生的情况的影响。
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